Vecuronium Bromide 4mg powder for solution for injection 

  1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Vecuronium bromide 4mg, for injection Taj Pharma
Vecuronium bromide 10mg, for injection Taj Pharma
Vecuronium bromide 20mg, for injection Taj Pharma

  1. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Vecuronium bromide 4mg
1 vial contains 4mg vecuronium bromide, which on reconstitution as recommended in 5ml of water for injections corresponds to 0.8 mg vecuronium bromide per ml.

Vecuronium bromide 10mg
1 vial contains 10mg vecuronium bromide, which on reconstitution as recommended in 5ml of water for injections corresponds to 2 mg vecuronium bromide per ml.

Vecuronium bromide 20mg
1 vial contains 20mg vecuronium bromide, which on reconstitution as recommended in 5ml of water for injections corresponds to 4 mg vecuronium bromide per ml.

For excipients, see section 6.1

  1. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Powder for solution for injection.

  1. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Vecuronium bromide is indicated as an adjunct to general anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery in adults, neonates, infants, children and adolescents.

4.2 Posology and method of administration Posology

As with other neuromuscular blocking agents, Vecuronium bromide should only be administered by, or under supervision of, experienced clinicians who are familiar with the action and use of these drugs.

As with all other neuromuscular blocking agents, the dosage of Vecuronium bromide should be individualised in each patient. The anaesthetic method used, the expected duration of surgery, the possible interaction with other drugs that are administered before or during anaesthesia and the condition of the patient should be taken into account when determining the dose.

The use of an appropriate neuromuscular monitoring technique is recommended to monitor neuromuscular block and recovery.

Inhalational anaesthetics potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effects of Vecuronium bromide. This potentiation however, becomes clinically relevant in the course of anaesthesia, when the volatile agents have reached the tissue concentrations required for this interaction. Consequently, adjustments with Vecuronium bromide should be made by administering smaller maintenance doses at less frequent intervals or by using lower infusion rates of Vecuronium bromide during long lasting procedures (longer than 1 hour) under inhalational anaesthesia (see section 4.5).

In adult patients the following dosage recommendations may serve as a general guideline for tracheal intubation and muscle relaxation for short to long lasting surgical procedures.

Tracheal intubation:

The standard intubating dose during routine anaesthesia is 80 to 100 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight, after which adequate intubation conditions are established within 90 to 120 seconds in nearly all patients.

Dosages of Vecuronium bromide for surgical procedures after intubation with suxamethonium:

Recommended doses: 30 to 50 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight.

If suxamethonium is used for intubation, the administration of Vecuronium bromide should be delayed until the patient has clinically recovered from the neuromuscular block induced by suxamethonium.

Maintenance dosing:

The recommended maintenance dose is 20 to 30 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight.

These maintenance doses should best be given when twitch height has recovered to 25% of control twitch height.

Dose requirements for administration of Vecuronium bromide by continuous infusion:

If Vecuronium bromide is administered by continuous infusion, it is recommended to give a loading dose first (see ‘Tracheal Intubation’) and, when neuromuscular block starts to recover, to start administration of Vecuronium bromide by infusion.

The infusion rate should be adjusted to maintain twitch response at 10% of control twitch height or to maintain 1 to 2 responses to train of four stimulation.

In adults, the infusion rate required to maintain neuromuscular block at this level, ranges from 0.8 to 1.4 micrograms vecuronium bromide/kg/min. For neonates and infants see below. Repeat monitoring of neuromuscular block is recommended since infusion rate requirements vary from patient to patient and with the anaesthetic method used.

Dosing in elderly patients

The same intubation and maintenance doses as for younger adults (80 – 100 micrograms/kg and 20 -30 micrograms/kg, respectively) can be used. However, the duration of action is prolonged in elderly compared to younger subjects due to changes in pharmacokinetic mechanisms. The onset time in elderly is similar to younger adults.

Dosing in paediatric patients:

Adolescents (12 – 17 years)

Although there is very little information on dosage in adolescents, it is advised to use the same dose as in adults, based on the physiological development at this age.

Children (2 – 11 years)

Dose requirements in children are higher than for adults and neonates (see ‘Paediatric patients’ in section 5.1). However, the same intubation and maintenance doses as for adults (80 – 100 micrograms/kg and 20-30 micrograms/kg, respectively) are usually sufficient. Since the duration of action is shorter in children, maintenance doses are required more frequently.

Neonates (0 – 27 days) and infants (28 days – 23 months)

Because of the possible variations of the sensitivity of the neuromuscular junction, especially in neonates and probably in infants up to 4 months of age, an initial test dose of 10 – 20 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight followed by incremental doses until 90 to 95% depression of twitch response is achieved is recommended. In neonatal surgery the dose should not exceed 100 micrograms/kg.

Dose requirements in older infants (5-23 months) are the same as in adults. However, since the onset time of Vecuronium bromide in these patients is considerably shorter than in adults and children, the use of high intubating doses in general is not required for early development of good intubating conditions.

Since the duration of action and recovery time with Vecuronium bromide is longer in neonates and infants than in children and adults, maintenance doses are required less frequently (see ‘Paediatric patients’ in section 5.1).

Preterm newborn infants

There are insufficient data to support dose recommendations for the use of vecuronium bromide in preterm newborn infants.

Continuous infusion in paediatric patients

There are insufficient data concerning continuous infusion of Vecuronium in paediatric patients, therefore, no dosing recommendations can be made.

Dosing in overweight and obese patients:

When used in overweight or obese patients (defined as patients with a body weight of 30% or more above ideal body weight), doses should be reduced taking into account an ideal body weight.

Higher doses

Should there be reason for selection of larger doses in individual patients, initial doses ranging from 150 micrograms up to 300 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight have been administered during surgery both under halothane and neurolept anaesthesia without adverse cardiovascular effects being noted as long as ventilation is properly maintained. The use of these high dosages of Vecuronium bromide pharmacodynamically decreases the onset time and increases the duration of action.

In caesarean section (see also section 4.6) and neonatal surgery the dose should not exceed 100 micrograms/kg.

Method of administration

Vecuronium bromide should be administered following reconstitution with water for injections. Vecuronium bromide is administered intravenously either as a bolus injection or as a continuous infusion (see also section 6.6).

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to vecuronium or the bromide ion or to any of the excipients of Vecuronium bromide.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Since Vecuronium bromide causes paralysis of the respiratory muscles, ventilatory support is mandatory for patients treated with this drug until adequate spontaneous respiration is restored.

As with other neuromuscular blocking agents, residual neuromuscular blockade has been reported for vecuronium bromide. In order to prevent complications resulting from residual neuromuscular blockade, it is recommended to extubate only after the patient has recovered sufficiently  from neuromuscular block. Other factors which could cause residual neuromuscular blockade after extubation in the post-operative phase (such as drug interactions or patient condition) should also be considered. If not used as part of standard clinical practice, the use of a reversal agent should be considered, especially in those cases where residual neuromuscular blockade is more likely to occur.

High rates of cross-sensitivity between neuromuscular blocking agents have been reported. Therefore, where possible, before administering Vecuronium bromide, hypersensitivity to other neuromuscular blocking agents should be excluded. Vecuronium bromide should only be used when absolutely essential in susceptible patients. Patients who experience a hypersensitivity reaction under general anaesthesia should be tested subsequently for hypersensitivity to other neuromuscular blockers.

Since Vecuronium bromide has no cardiovascular effects within the clinical dosage range, it does not attenuate bradycardia that may occur due to the use of some types of anaesthetics and opiates or due to vagal reflexes during surgery. Therefore, reassessment of the use and/or dosage of vagolytic drugs such as atropine for premedication or at induction of anaesthesia, may be of value for surgical procedures during which vagal reactions are more likely to occur (e.g. surgical procedures where anaesthetic drugs with known vagal stimulatory effects are used, opthalmic, abdominal or anorectal surgery, etc.).

In general, following long term use of neuromuscular blocking agents in the ICU, prolonged paralysis and/or skeletal muscle weakness has been noted. In order to help preclude possible prolongation of neuromuscular block and/or overdosage it is strongly recommended that neuromuscular transmission is monitored throughout the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. In addition, patients should receive adequate analgesia and sedation. Furthermore, muscle relaxants should be titrated to effect in the individual patients by or under supervision of experienced clinicians who are familiar with their actions and with appropriate neuromuscular monitoring techniques.

Myopathy after long term administration of non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents in the ICU in combination with corticosteroid therapy has been reported frequently. Therefore, for patients receiving both neuromuscular blocking agents and corticosteroids, the period of use of the neuromuscular blocking agent should be limited as much as possible.

The following conditions may influence the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of Vecuronium bromide:

Hepatic and/or biliary tract disease and renal failure.

Because vecuronium is excreted in bile and in urine, Vecuronium bromide should be used with caution in patients with clinically significant hepatic and/or biliary diseases and/or renal failure. In these patient groups prolongation of action has been observed, especially when high doses of vecuronium (200 micrograms/kg bodyweight) were administered in patients with hepatic disease.

Prolonged circulation time

Conditions associated with prolonged circulation time such as cardiovascular disease, old age, oedematous state resulting in an increased volume of distribution, may contribute to an increase in the onset time of neuromuscular block. The duration of action may also be prolonged due to a reduced plasma clearance.

Neuromuscular disease

As with other neuromuscular blocking agents, Vecuronium bromide should be used with extreme caution in patients with neuromuscular disease or after poliomyelitis since the response to neuromuscular blocking agents may be considerably altered in these cases. The magnitude and direction of this alteration may vary widely. In patients with myasthenia gravis or the myasthenic (Eaton Lambert) syndrome, small doses of Vecuronium bromide may have profound effects and Vecuronium bromide should be titrated to the response.

Hypothermia

In operations under hypothermia, the neuromuscular blocking effect of Vecuronium bromide is increased and the duration is prolonged.

Obesity

Like other neuromuscular blocking agents, Vecuronium bromide may exhibit a prolonged duration and a prolonged spontaneous recovery in obese patients, when the administered doses are calculated on actual body weight.

Burns

Patients with burns are known to develop resistance to non-depolarising agents. It is recommended that the dose is titrated to response.

Other conditions which may increase the effects of Vecuronium bromide are:

Hypokalaemia (e.g. after severe vomiting, diarrhoea, and diuretic therapy), hypermagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia (after massive transfusions), hypoproteinaemia, dehydration, acidosis, hypercapnoea, cachexia. Severe electrolyte disturbances, altered blood pH or dehydration should therefore be corrected when possible.

Based on preclinical findings, vecuronium bromide may cause a reduction in the partial thromboplastin time and the prothrombin time, like pancuronium bromide, d-tubocurarine or other non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

The following drugs have been shown to influence the magnitude and/or duration of action of non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents:

Effect of other drugs on Vecuronium bromide

Increased effect:

Halogenated volatile anaesthetics potentiate the neuromuscular block of Vecuronium bromide. The effect only becomes apparent with maintenance dosing (see also section 4.2). Reversal of the block with anticholinesterase inhibitors could also be inhibited.

After intubation with suxamethonium (see section 4.2).

Long-term concomitant use of corticosteroids and Vecuronium bromide in the ICU may result in prolonged duration of neuromuscular block or myopathy (see also section 4.4 and 4.8).

Other drugs:

  • antibiotics: aminoglycoside, lincosamide and polypeptide antibiotics, acylamino-penicillin antibiotics.
  • diuretics, quinidine, magnesium salts, calcium channel blocking agents, lithium salts, cimetidine, lidocaine and acute administration of phenytoin or ß- blocking agents.

Recurarisation has been reported after post-operative administration of: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, polypeptide and acylamino-penicillin antibiotics, quinidine and magnesium salts (see section 4.4).

Decreased effect:

Prior chronic administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine Calcium chloride, potassium chloride

Variable effect:

Administration of other non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents in combination with Vecuronium bromide may produce attenuation or potentiation of the neuromuscular block, depending on the order of administration and the neuromuscular blocking agent used.

Suxamethonium given after the administration of Vecuronium bromide may produce potentiation or attenuation of the neuromuscular blocking effect of Vecuronium bromide.

Effect of Vecuronium bromide on other drugs

Effect of Vecuronium bromide on lidocaine

Vecuronium bromide combined with lidocaine may result in a quicker onset of action of lidocaine.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Fertility

Animal studies do not indicate an effect on fertility.

Pregnancy

There are insufficient data on the use of vecuronium bromide during animal or human pregnancy to assess potential harm to the foetus. Vecuronium bromide should be given to a pregnant woman only when the attending physician decides that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Caesarean section

Studies with vecuronium bromide, administered in doses up to 100 micrograms/kg, have shown its safety for use in caesarean section. In caesarean section the dose should not exceed 100 micrograms/kg.

In several clinical studies vecuronium bromide did not affect Apgar score, foetal muscle tonus or cardiorespiratory adaptation. From umbilical cord blood sampling it is apparent that only very little placental transfer of vecuronium bromide occurs which did not lead to the observation of any clinical adverse effect in the new-born.

Note:

Reversal of Vecuronium bromide-induced neuromuscular block may be inhibited or unsatisfactory in patients receiving magnesium sulphate for toxaemia of pregnancy because magnesium salts enhance neuromuscular block.

Therefore, in patients receiving magnesium sulphate, the dosage of Vecuronium bromide should be reduced and be carefully titrated to twitch response.

Breastfeeding

It is unknown whether vecuronium bromide is excreted in human breast milk. The excretion of vecuronium bromide in milk has not been studied in animals. A decision on whether to continue/discontinue breast-feeding or to continue/discontinue therapy with vecuronium bromide should be made taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the child and the benefit of vecuronium bromide therapy to the woman.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Since Vecuronium bromide is used as an adjunct to general anaesthesia, the usual precautionary measures after a general anaesthesia should be taken for ambulatory patients.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare (<1/1000). The most commonly occurring ADRs include changes in vital signs and prolonged neuromuscular block. The most frequently reported ADR during post-marketing surveillance is ‘anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions’ and associated symptoms (reporting frequency <1/100 000). See also the explanations below the table.

Injury,      poisoning      and procedural complicationsProlonged neuromuscular block

MedDRA SOCPreferred term 1
Uncommon/rare

(<1/100, >1/10 000)

Very rare (<1/10 000)
Immune system disordersHypersensitivity
Anaphylactic reaction
Anaphylactoid reaction
Anaphylactic shock
Anaphylactoid shock
Nervous system disordersFlaccid paralysis
Cardiac disordersTachycardia
Vascular disordersHypotensionCirculatory       collapse           and shock

Flushing

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disordersBronchospasm
Skin     and      subcutaneous tissue disordersAngioneurotic edema
Urticaria
Rash
Erythematous rash
Musculoskeletal           and connective tissue disordersMuscular weakness 2
Steroid myopathy 2
General disorders and administration            site conditionsDrug ineffectiveFace oedema
Decreased        drug     effect/ therapeutic responseInjection site pain
Increased         drug     effect/ therapeutic responseInjection site reaction
Airway complication    of anaesthesia
Delayed recovery from anaesthesia
MedDRA version 8.0

1 Frequencies are estimates derived from post-marketing surveillance reports and data from the general literature.

2 after long-term use in the ICU.

Prolonged Neuromuscular block

The most frequent adverse reaction to nondepolarising blocking agents as a class consists of an extension of the drug’s pharmacological action beyond the time period needed. This may vary from skeletal muscle weakness to profound and prolonged skeletal muscle paralysis resulting in respiratory insufficiency or apnea. A few cases of myopathy have been reported after vecuronium bromide was used in the ICU in combination with corticosteroids (see section 4.4).

Anaphylactic reactions

Although very rare, severe anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents, including vecuronium bromide, have been reported. Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions usually comprise of several signs or symptoms e.g. bronchospasm, cardiovascular changes (e.g. hypotension, tachycardia, circulatory collapse – shock), and cutaneous changes (e.g. angioedema, urticaria). These reactions have, in some cases, been fatal. Due to the possible severity of these reactions, one should always assume they may occur and take the necessary precautions.

Histamine release and histaminoid reactions

Since neuromuscular blocking agents are known to be capable of inducing histamine release both locally at the site of injection and systemically, the possible occurrence of itching and erythematous reactions at the site of injection and/or generalised histaminoid (anaphylactoid) reactions (see also under anaphylactic reactions above) should always be taken into consideration when administering these drugs.

Experimental studies with intradermal injection of vecuronium bromide have demonstrated that this drug has only a weak capacity for inducing local histamine release. Controlled studies in man failed to demonstrate any significant rise in plasma histamine levels after intravenous administration of vecuronium bromide. Nevertheless, such cases have rarely been reported during large scale use of vecuronium bromide.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

4.9 Overdose

In the event of overdosage and prolonged neuromuscular block, the patient should continue to receive ventilatory support and sedation. In this situation there are two options for the reversal of neuromuscular block: (1) sugammadex can be used for reversal of intense (profound) and deep block. The dose of Sugammadex to be administered depends on the level of neuromuscular block. The use of Sugammadex for the purposes of reversal of vecuronium-induced blockade is recommended for use only in the adult population. (2) An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (e.g. neostigmine, edrophonium, pyridostigmine) can be used once spontaneous recovery starts and should be administered in adequate doses. When administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibiting agent fails to reverse the neuromuscular effects of Vecuronium bromide, ventilation must be continued until spontaneous breathing is restored. Repeated dosage of an acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor  can be dangerous.

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: muscle relaxants, peripherally acting agents,
Vecuronium bromide (vecuronium bromide) is a non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent, chemically designated as the aminosteroid 1- (3α, 17β-diacetoxy-2β piperidino-5α -androstan-16β-yl)-1 methylpiperidinium bromide.

Vecuronium bromide blocks the transmission process between the motor nerve-ending and striated muscle by binding competitively with acetylcholine to the nicotinic receptors located in the motor end-plate region of striated muscle.

Unlike depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents, such as suxamethonium, Vecuronium bromide does not cause muscle fasciculations.

Within the clinical dosage range, vecuronium does not block the sympathetic nicotinic receptors, and thus exerts no ganglion blocking activity. In addition, in this dose range vecuronium does not block the parasympathetic muscarinic receptors, and thus exerts no vagolytic activity.

Tracheal intubation

Within 90 to 120 seconds following intravenous administration of a dose of 80 to 100 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight, good to excellent conditions for endotracheal intubation occur and within 3 to 4 minutes following administration of these dosages, general muscle paralysis adequate for any type of surgery is established. The duration of action to 25% recovery of control twitch height (clinical duration) with this dose is 24 to 60 minutes. The time to 95% recovery of control twitch height following this dose is approximately 60 to 80 minutes. With higher dosages of vecuronium bromide, onset time to maximal block is shortened and duration of action is prolonged.

Continuous intravenous infusion

When vecuronium bromide is administered by continuous intravenous infusion, a steady state neuromuscular block of 90% can be maintained at a constant rate of drug delivery and without clinically significant prolongation of the recovery time from neuromuscular block at termination of the infusion.

Vecuronium bromide has no cumulative effects if maintenance doses are administered at 25% recovery of control twitch height. Several maintenance doses can therefore be given in succession.

These properties allow the use of Vecuronium bromide in short, medium and long lasting surgical procedures.

Reversal of neuromuscular block

Administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, pyridostigmine or edrophonium, antagonises the action of vecuronium bromide.

Paediatric population Neonates and infants:

In neonates and infants the ED95 dose of vecuronium bromide under balanced anaesthesia was found to be approximately the same (approx. 47 micrograms/kg body weight) as in adults.

The onset time of vecuronium bromide in neonates and infants is considerably shorter as compared to children and adults, probably due to the shorter circulation time and larger cardiac output. Also, a greater sensitivity of the neuromuscular junction to the action of neuromuscular blocking agents in these patients may account for a more rapid onset of action. The duration of action and recovery time with vecuronium bromide is longer in neonates and infants than in adults. Maintenance doses of vecuronium bromide should therefore be less frequently administered.

Children:

In children the ED95 dose of vecuronium bromide under balanced anaesthesia was found to be higher than in adults (81 vs 43 micrograms/kg bodyweight, respectively). In comparison to adults, the duration of action and recovery time with vecuronium bromide in children are in general approximately 30% and 20-30% shorter respectively.

Similar to adults, cumulative effects with repeat maintenance doses of approximately one quarter of the initial dose and administered at 25% recovery of control twitch height are not observed in paediatric patients.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After intravenous administration of 100–150 micrograms/kg vecuronium, the distribution half-life of vecuronium amounts to 1.2-1.4 minutes.

Vecuronium is mainly distributed in the extracellular fluid compartment. At steady state, the volume of distribution is 0.18-0.51 l.kg-1 in adult patients.

The plasma clearance of vecuronium amounts to 3.0-6.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 and its plasma elimination half-life is 36-117 minutes.

The extent of metabolism of vecuronium is relatively low. In humans, a 3- hydroxy derivative having approximately 50% less neuromuscular blocking potency than vecuronium is formed in the liver. In patients not suffering from renal or hepatic failure, the plasma concentration of this derivative is below detection limit, and does not contribute to the neuromuscular block occurring after administration of Vecuronium bromide.

Biliary excretion is the main elimination route. It is estimated that within 24 hours after intravenous administration of vecuronium bromide, 40 to 60% of the dose administered is excreted into the bile as monoquaternary compounds. Approximately 95% of these monoquaternary compounds is unchanged vecuronium and less than 5% is 3-hydroxy vecuronium. Prolonged duration of action has been observed in patients with liver disease and/or biliary tract disease, probably as a result of decreased clearance leading to an increased elimination half-life.

Renal elimination is relatively low. The amount of monoquaternary compounds excreted in the urine collected by intravesical catheter for 24 hours following vecuronium bromide administration is 20-30% of the dose administered. In patients with renal failure, the duration of action may be prolonged. This is probably the result of an increased sensitivity to vecuronium, but it could also be the result of a reduced plasma clearance.

Paediatric population

There are limited pharmacokinetic data for vecuronium in the paediatric population. After intravenous administration, vecuronium plasma clearance is similar across neonates, infants and children (2.8-9.0 ml.kg-1.min-1) and not different from the clearance in adults. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss), in infants is similar to the one in adult patients (0.29-0.43 l/kg), whereas it is slightly smaller in children (0.13 – 0.32 l/kg).

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Vecuronium bromide showed no genotoxic, embryotoxic or teratogenic potential. Single and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats, dogs and cats revealed no special hazard for humans.

  1. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

Vecuronium bromide is supplied as a freeze dried powder containing:

  • Citric acid monohydrate
  • Disodium phosphate dihydrate
  • Mannitol
  • Sodium hydroxide (for pH correction)
  • Phosphoric acid (for pH correction)

6.2 Incompatibilities

As is the case for many other drugs, incompatibility has been documented for Vecuronium bromide when added to thiopental.

Except for those solutions with which Vecuronium bromide has been shown to be compatible, it is not recommended to mix Vecuronium bromide with other solutions, or drugs in the same syringe or bag (see Section 6.6).

If Vecuronium bromide is administered via the same infusion line that is also used for other drugs, it is important that this infusion line is adequately flushed (e.g. with 0.9% sodium chloride) between administration of Vecuronium bromide and drugs for which incompatibility with Vecuronium bromide has been demonstrated or for which compatibility with Vecuronium bromide has not been established.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years

Chemical and physical in-use (i.e. following reconstitution) stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at 25°C.

From a microbiological point of view, unless the method of reconstitution precludes the risk of microbial contamination, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions. For storage conditions of the reconstituted solution, see section 6.3.

Do not use Vecuronium bromide when the solution after reconstitution contains particles or is not clear

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Packaging of 1, 10, 20, 20 (2×10) and 100 vials each containing 10 mg vecuronium bromide.

Clear, colourless glass (Type I) vial closed with rubber closure and sealed with an aluminum cap.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal Reconstitution:

Vecuronium bromide 10 mg

Addition of 5ml water for injections results in an isotonic solution of pH 4 containing 2 mg vecuronium bromide per ml. (2 mg/ml).

Alternatively, in order to obtain a solution with a lower concentration Vecuronium bromide 10 mg may be reconstituted with a volume up to 10 ml of the following infusion fluids:

  • 5% glucose injection fluid
  • 9% sodium chloride injection fluid
  • Lactated Ringer’s solution
  • Lactated Ringer’s injection and 5% glucose
  • Glucose 5% and 0.9% sodium chloride injection
  • Water for injections

Compatibilities
When Vecuronium bromide is reconstituted with water for injections, the resultant solution can be mixed with the following infusion fluids, packed in PVC or glass, to a dilution up to 40 mg/litre:

  • 9% NaCl solution
  • 5% glucose solution
  • Ringer’s solution
  • Ringer’s glucose

The above-mentioned reconstituted solution can also be injected in to the line of a running infusion of the following fluids:

  • Lactated Ringer’s solution
  • Lactated Ringer’s solution and 5% glucose
  • Glucose 5% and 0.9% sodium chloride solution
  • Haemaccel
  • Dextran-40 5% in 0.9% sodium chloride solution
  • Water for injections

Compatibility studies with other infusion fluids have not been performed.

 

  1. Manufactured By:
    Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
    at: Plot. No. 220, Mahagujarat
    Industrial Estate, At & Post-Moraiya,
    Tal-Sanand, Dist- Ahmedabad Gujarat (India)

 

Vecuronium Bromide 4mg, 10mg, 20mg powder for solution for injection

Package leaflet: Information for the patient
Vecuronium Bromide 4mg, 10mg, 20mg powder for solution for injection Taj Pharma
Vecuronium bromide

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you are given this medicine because it contains important information for you.

  • Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
  • If you have any further questions, ask your anaesthetist or other doctor.
  • If you get any side effects, talk to your anaesthetist or doctor. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.

What is in this leaflet

  1. What Vecuronium bromide is and what it is used for
  2. What you need to know before Vecuronium bromide is given to you
  3. How Vecuronium bromide is given
  4. Possible side effects
  5. How to store Vecuronium bromide
  6. Contents of the pack and other information
  7. What Vecuronium bromide is and what it is used for

Vecuronium bromide is one of a group of drugs called muscle relaxants.

Muscle relaxants are used during an operation as part of a general anaesthetic. When you have an operation your muscles must be completely relaxed. This makes it easier for the surgeon to perform the operation.

Normally, your nerves send messages called impulses to your muscles. Vecuronium bromide acts by blocking these impulses so that your muscles relax. Because your breathing muscles also relax, you will need help to breathe (artificial ventilation) during and after your operation until you can breathe on your own again.

During the operation your anaesthetist will keep a check on the effect of the muscle relaxant, and if necessary will give you some more. At the end of surgery, the effects of the drug are allowed to wear off and you will start breathing on your own. Sometimes the anaesthetist will give you another drug to help speed this up.

  1. What you need to know before Vecuronium bromide is given to you

You should not be given Vecuronium bromide:

  • if you are allergic (hypersensitive) to vecuronium, the bromide ion or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).

Tell your anaesthetist if this applies to you.

Warnings and precautions

Talk to your anaesthetist before you receive Vecuronium bromide:

  • if you are allergic to muscle relaxants
  • if you have had kidney, heart, liver or gall bladder disease
  • if you have had diseases affecting nerves and muscles
  • if you have fluid retention (oedema).

Tell your anaesthetist if any of these applies to you.

Some conditions may influence the effects of Vecuronium bromide, for example:

  • low calcium levels in the blood
  • low potassium levels in the blood
  • high magnesium levels in the blood
  • low levels of protein in the blood
  • too much acid in the blood
  • too much carbon dioxide in the blood

loss of too much water from the body, for example by being sick, diarrhoea or sweating (dehydration)

  • over-breathing leading to too little carbon dioxide in the blood (alkalosis)
  • general ill-health
  • burns
  • being very overweight (obesity)
  • very low body temperature (hypothermia).

If you have any of these conditions, your anaesthetist will take this into account when deciding the correct dose of Vecuronium bromide for you.

Other medicines and Vecuronium bromide

Tell your anaesthetist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines. This includes medicines or herbal products that you have bought without a prescription. Vecuronium bromide may affect other medicines or be affected by them.

Medicines which increase the effect of Vecuronium bromide:

  • certain antibiotics;
  • certain medicines for heart disease or high blood pressure (water tablets, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers and quinidine);
  • certain anti-inflammatory medicines (corticosteroids);
  • medicines for manic depressive illness (bipolar disorder);
  • magnesium salts;
  • the medicine called cimetidine, used to treat stomach ulcers, heartburn or acid reflux;
  • local anaesthetics (lidocaine);
  • medicines which cause increased volume of urine (diuretics).

Medicines which decrease the effect of Vecuronium bromide:

  • chronic use of medicines for epilepsy (phenytoin, carbamazepine);
  • calcium chloride and potassium chloride.

In addition, you may be given other medicines before or during surgery which can alter the effects of Vecuronium bromide. These include certain anaesthetics, other muscle relaxants, medicines such as phenytoin and medicines which reverse the effects of Vecuronium bromide. Vecuronium bromide may make certain anaesthetics work more quickly.

Your anaesthetist will take this into account when deciding the correct dose of Vecuronium bromide for you.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding

Tell your anaesthetist if you are pregnant or breast- feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby.

Your anaesthetist may still give you Vecuronium bromide, but you need to discuss it first. Vecuronium bromide may be given to you if you are having a Caesarean section.

Driving and using machines

Do not drive or use machines until advised it is safe to do so. Because Vecuronium bromide is given as part of a general anaesthetic, you may feel tired, weak or dizzy for some time afterwards. Your anaesthetist will be able to advise you on how long the effects are likely to last.

  1. How Vecuronium bromide is given

Vecuronium bromide will be given to you by your anaesthetist. Vecuronium bromide is given intravenously (into a vein), either as single injections or as a continuous infusion (a drip).

The dose

Vecuronium bromide can be used in adults and children of all ages including infants and newborns. Your anaesthetist will work out the dose of Vecuronium bromide you need based on:

  • the type of anaesthetic
  • the expected length of the operation

other drugs you are taking

  • your state of health
  • your age.

The normal dose is 80 – 100 micrograms per kg body weight and the effect will last 24 – 60 minutes. During the procedure it will be checked whether Vecuronium bromide is still working. You may be given additional doses if they are needed.

If you receive more Vecuronium bromide than you should

As your anaesthetist will be monitoring your condition carefully it is unlikely that you will be given too much Vecuronium bromide. However if this happens, your anaesthetist will keep you breathing artificially (on a ventilator) until you can breathe on your own. It is possible to counteract the effects of (too much) vecuronium bromide and speed-up your recovery by giving you a drug that reverses the effect of vecuronium bromide. You will be kept asleep while this takes place.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your anaesthetist or other doctor.

  1. Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. If these side effects occur while you are under anaesthetic, they will be seen and treated by your anaesthetist.

Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)

  • the medicine is too effective, or not effective enough
  • the medicine works for longer than expected
  • lowering of blood pressure
  • increase in heart rate.

Very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people)

  • allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions (such as difficulty in breathing, collapse of the circulation and shock)
  • wheezing of the chest
  • muscle weakness
  • swelling, a rash or redness of the skin
  • pain near the site of injection.

Reporting of side effects

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or anaesthetist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

  1. How to store Vecuronium bromide

The hospital will keep Vecuronium bromide according to the correct storage conditions.

  1. Contents of the pack and other information What Vecuronium bromide contains
  • The active substance is vecuronium bromide. Each

vial contains 10 mg of vecuronium bromide. It is dissolved before use to make a solution.

  • The other ingredients are citric acid monohydrate, disodium phosphate dihydrate, mannitol, sodium hydroxide, and phosphoric acid.

What Vecuronium bromide looks like and contents of the pack

Vecuronium bromide is a white powder for solution for injection.

There are 1, 10, 20, 20 (2×10) and 100 vials of Vecuronium bromide per pack.

 

  1. Manufactured By:
    Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
    at: Plot. No. 220, Mahagujarat
    Industrial Estate, At & Post-Moraiya,
    Tal-Sanand, Dist- Ahmedabad Gujarat (India)