- Name of the medicinal product
- Qualitative and quantitative composition
a) Each film coated Tablet contains:
Losartan potassium USP 12.5mg
Colours: Red Oxide of Iron and Titanium Dioxide USP
b) Each film coated Tablet contains:
Losartan potassium USP 25mg
Colours: Red Oxide of Iron and Titanium Dioxide USP
c) Each film coated Tablet contains:
Losartan potassium USP 50mg
Colours: Red Oxide of Iron and Titanium Dioxide USP
d) Each film coated Tablet contains:
Losartan potassium USP 100mg
Colours: Red Oxide of Iron and Titanium Dioxide USP
For more excipients see section (6)
- Pharmaceutical form
- Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
- Treatment of essential hypertension in adults and in children and adolescents 6-18 years of age.
- Treatment of renal disease in adult patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus with proteinuria ≥ 0.5 g/day as part of an antihypertensive treatment (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1).
- Treatment of chronic heart failure in adult patients when treatment with Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is not considered suitable due to incompatibility, especially cough, or contraindication. Patients with heart failure who have been stabilised with an ACE inhibitor should not be switched to losartan. The patients should have a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% and should be clinically stable and on an established treatment regimen for chronic heart failure.
- Reduction in the risk of stroke in adult hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy documented by ECG (see section 5.1 LIFE study, Race).
4.2 Posology and method of administration
The usual starting and maintenance dose is 50 mg once daily for most patients. The maximal antihypertensive effect is attained 3-6 weeks after initiation of therapy. Some patients may receive an additional benefit by increasing the dose to 100 mg once daily (in the morning). Losartan Tablets may be administered alone or with other antihypertensive agents, especially with diuretics (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide) (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1).
Hypertensive type II diabetic patients with proteinuria ≥ 0.5 g/day
The usual starting dose is 50 mg once daily. The dose may be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response from one month onwards after initiation of therapy. Losartan Tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents (e.g. diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha- or beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents) (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1) as well as with insulin and other commonly used hypoglyceamic agents (e.g. sulfonylureas, glitazones and glucosidase inhibitors).
The usual initial dose of Losartan Tablets in patients with heart failure is 12.5 mg once daily. The dose should generally be titrated at weekly intervals (i.e. 12.5 mg daily, 25 mg daily, 50 mg daily, 100 mg daily, up to a maximum dose of 150 mg once daily) as tolerated by the patient.
Reduction in the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy documented by ECG
The usual starting dose is 50 mg of Losartan Tablets once daily. A low dose of hydrochlorothiazide should be added and/or the dose of Losartan Tablets should be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response.
Use in patients with intravascular volume depletion:
For patients with intravascular volume-depletion (e.g. those treated with high-dose diuretics), a starting dose of 25 mg once daily should be considered (see section 4.4).
Use in patients with renal impairment and haemodialysis patients:
No initial dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment and in haemodialysis patients.
Use in patients with hepatic impairment:
A lower dose should be considered for patients with a history of hepatic impairment. There is no therapeutic experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, losartan is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
6 months – less than 6 years
The safety and efficacy of children aged 6 months to less than 6 years has not been established. Currently available data are described in sections 5.1 and 5.2 but no recommendation on posology can be made.
6 years to 18 years
For patients who can swallow tablets, the recommended dose is 25 mg once daily in patients >20 to <50 kg. (In exceptional cases the dose can be increased to a maximum of 50 mg once daily). Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response.
In patients >50 kg, the usual dose is 50 mg once daily. In exceptional cases the dose can be adjusted to a maximum of 100 mg once daily. Doses above 1.4 mg/ kg (or in excess of 100 mg) daily have not been studied in paediatric patients.
Losartan is not recommended for use in children under 6 years old, as limited data are available in these patient groups.
It is not recommended in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/ min / 1.73 m2, as no data are available (see also section 4.4).
Losartan is also not recommended in children with hepatic impairment (see also section 4.4).
Use in Elderly
Although consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 25 mg in patients over 75 years of age, dosage adjustment is not usually necessary for the elderly.
Method of administration
Losartan tablets should be swallowed with a glass of water.
Losartan Tablets may be administered with or without food.
- Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in sections 4.4 and 6.1.
- 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (see sections 4.4 and 4.6)
- Severe hepatic impairment
- The concomitant use of losartan with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see sections 4.5 and 5.1).
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Angioedema. Patients with a history of angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, throat, and/ or tongue) should be closely monitored (See section 4.8).
Hypotension and Electrolyte/Fluid Imbalance
Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose and after increasing of the dose, may occur in patients who are volume- and/or sodium-depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. These conditions should be corrected prior to administration of losartan, or a lower starting dose should be used (see section 4.2). This also applies to children 6 to 18 years of age.
Electrolyte imbalances are common in patients with renal impairment, with or without diabetes, and should be addressed. In a clinical study conducted in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, the incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the group treated with losartan as compared to the placebo group (see section 4.8). Therefore, the plasma concentrations of potassium as well as creatinine clearance values should be closely monitored, especially patients with heart failure and a creatinine clearance between 30-50 ml/ min should be closely monitored.
The concomitant use of potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium- containing salt substitutes, or other drugs that may increase serum potassium (e.g., trimethoprim-containing products) with losartan is not recommended (see section 4.5).
Based on pharmacokinetic data which demonstrate significantly increased plasma concentrations of losartan in cirrhotic patients, a lower dose should be considered for patients with a history of hepatic impairment. There is no therapeutic experience with losartan in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore losartan must not be administered in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 5.2).
Losartan is not recommended in children with hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system, changes in renal function including renal failure have been reported (in particular, in patients whose renal function is dependent on the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system such as those with severe cardiac insufficiency or pre-existing renal dysfunction). As with other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increases in blood urea and serum creatinine have also been reported in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney; these changes in renal function may be reversible upon discontinuation of therapy. Losartan should be used with caution in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney.
Use in paediatric patients with renal impairment
Losartan is not recommended in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/ min/ 1.73 m2 as no data are available (see section 4.2).
Renal function should be regularly monitored during treatment with losartan as it may deteriorate. This applies particularly when losartan is given in the presence of other conditions (fever, dehydration) likely to impair renal function.
Concomitant use of losartan and ACE-inhibitors has shown to impair renal function. Therefore, concomitant use is not recommended (see section 4.5).
There is no experience in patients with recent kidney transplantation.
Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of Losartan tablets is not recommended.
Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease
As with any antihypertensive agents, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.
In patients with heart failure, with or without renal impairment, there is – as with other medicinal products acting on the renin-angiotensin system – a risk of severe arterial hypotension, and (often acute) renal impairment.
There is no sufficient therapeutic experience with losartan in patients with heart failure and concomitant severe renal impairment, in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class IV) as well as in patients with heart failure and symptomatic life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, losartan should be used with caution in these patient groups. The combination of losartan with a beta-blocker should be used with caution (see section 5.1).
Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Losartan should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued losartan therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with losartan should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see sections 4.3 and 4.6).
Other warnings and precautions
As observed for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, losartan and the other angiotensin antagonists are apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockage of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see sections 4.5 and 5.1).
If dual blockage therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure. ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Other antihypertensive agents may increase the hypotensive action of losartan. Concomitant use with other substances which may induce hypotension as an adverse reaction (like tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, baclofen, and amifostine) may increase the risk of hypotension.
Losartan is predominantly metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 to the active carboxy-acid metabolite. In a clinical trial it was found that fluconazole (inhibitor of CYP2C9) decreases the exposure to the active metabolite by approximately 50%. It was found that concomitant treatment of losartan with rifampicin (inducer of metabolism enzymes) gave a 40% reduction in plasma concentration of the active metabolite. The clinical relevance of this effect is unknown. No difference in exposure was found with concomitant treatment with fluvastatin (weak inhibitor of CYP2C9).
As with other medicinal products that block angiotensin II or its effects, concomitant use of other medicinal products which retain potassium (e.g. potassium-sparing diuretics: amiloride, triamterene, spironolactone) or may increase potassium levels (e.g. heparin, trimethoprim-containing products), potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium. Co-medication is not advisable.
Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with ACE inhibitors. Very rare cases have also been reported with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Co-administration of lithium and losartan should be undertaken with caution. If this combination proves essential, serum lithium level monitoring is recommended during concomitant use.
When angiotensin II antagonists are administered simultaneously with NSAIDs (i.e. selective COX-2 inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid at anti-inflammatory doses and non-selective NSAIDs), attenuation of the antihypertensive effect may occur. Concomitant use of angiotensin II antagonists or diuretics and NSAIDs may lead to an increased risk of worsening of renal function, including possible acute renal failure, and an increase in serum potassium, especially in patients with poor pre-existing renal function. The combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy, and periodically thereafter.
Clinical trial data has shown that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is associated with a higher frequency of adverse events such as hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to the use of a single RAAS-acting agent (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1).
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
|The use of losartan is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.4). The use of losartan is contraindicated during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).|
Epidemiological evidence regarding the risk of teratogenicity following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been conclusive; however a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Whilst there is no controlled epidemiological data on the risk with Angiotensin II Receptor Inhibitors (AIIRAs), similar risks may exist for this class of medicinal products. Unless continued AIIRA therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with losartan should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.
Exposure to AIIRA therapy during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human foetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia) (see also 5.3). Should exposure to losartan have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended.
Infants whose mothers have taken losartan should be closely observed for hypotension (see also sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Because no information is available regarding the use of losartan during breastfeeding, losartan is not recommended and alternative treatments with better established safety profiles during breast-feeding are preferable, especially while nursing a new-born or preterm infant.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, when driving vehicles or operating machines it must be borne in mind that dizziness or drowsiness may occasionally occur when taking antihypertensive therapy, in particular during initiation of treatment or when the dose is increased.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Losartan has been evaluated in clinical studies as follows:
- in a controlled clinical trial in >3000 adult patients 18 years of age and older for essential hypertension
- in a controlled clinical trial in 177 hypertensive paediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age
- in a controlled clinical trial in >9000 hypertensive patients 55 to 80 years of age with left ventricular hypertrophy (see LIFE Study, section 5.1)
- in a controlled clinical trial in >7700 adult patients with chronic heart failure (see ELITE I, ELITE II, and HEAAL study, section 5.1)
- in a controlled clinical trial in >1500 type 2 diabetic patients 31 years of age and older with proteinuria (see RENAAL study, section 5.1).
In these clinical trials, the most common adverse event was dizziness.
The frequency of adverse reactions listed below is defined using the following convention:
very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100, to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000, to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000, to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Table 1. The frequency of adverse reactions identified from placebo-controlled clinical studies and post marketing experience
|Adverse reaction||Frequency of adverse reaction by indication||Other|
|Hypertension||Hypertensive patients with left-ventricular hypertrophy||Chronic Heart Failure||Hypertension and type 2 diabetes with renal disease||Post-marketing experience|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|anaemia||common||frequency not known|
|thrombocytopaenia||frequency not known|
|Immune system disorders|
|hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions, angioedema*, and vasculitis**||rare|
|depression||frequency not known|
|Nervous system disorders|
|migraine||frequency not known|
|dysgeusia||frequency not known|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
|tinnitus||frequency not known|
|(orthostatic) hypotension (including dose-related orthostatic effects) ║||uncommon||common||common|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|cough||uncommon||frequency not known|
|diarrhoea||uncommon||frequency not known|
|pancreatitis||frequency not known|
|liver function abnormalities||frequency not known|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|urticaria||uncommon||frequency not known|
|pruritus||uncommon||frequency not known|
|rash||uncommon||uncommon||frequency not known|
|photosensitivity||frequency not known|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|myalgia||frequency not known|
|arthralgia||frequency not known|
|rhabdomyolysis||frequency not known|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|erectile dysfunction / impotence||frequency not known|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|malaise||frequency not known|
|increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) §||rare|
|increase in blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum potassium||common|
|hyponatraemia||frequency not known|
*Including swelling of the larynx, glottis, face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue (causing airway obstruction); in some of these patients angioedema had been reported in the past in connection with the administration of other medicines, including ACE inhibitors
**Including Henoch-Schönlein purpura
║Especially in patients with intravascular depletion, e.g. patients with severe heart failure or under treatment with high dose diuretics
†Common in patients who received 150 mg losartan instead of 50 mg
‡In a clinical study conducted in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 9.9% of patients treated with Losartan tablets developed hyperkalaemia >5.5 mmol/l and 3.4% of patients treated with placebo
- Usually resolved upon discontinuation
The following additional adverse reactions occurred more frequently in patients who received losartan than placebo (frequencies not known): back pain, urinary tract infection, and flu-like symptoms
Renal and urinary disorders:
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function including renal failure have been reported in patients at risk; these changes in renal function may be reversible upon discontinuation of therapy (see section 4.4)
The adverse reaction profile for paediatric patients appears to be similar to that seen in adult patients. Data in the paediatric population are limited.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.
Symptoms of intoxication
Limited data are available with regard to overdose in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdose would be hypotension and tachycardia. Bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation.
Treatment of intoxication
If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. Measures are depending on the time of medicinal product intake and kind and severity of symptoms. Stabilisation of the cardiovascular system should be given priority. After oral intake, the administration of a sufficient dose of activated charcoal is indicated. Afterwards, close monitoring of the vital parameters should be performed. Vital parameters should be corrected if necessary.
Neither losartan nor the active metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis.
- Pharmacological properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Angiotensin II antagonists
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Losartan is a synthetic oral angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, is the primary active hormone of the renin/angiotensin system and an important determinant of the pathophysiology of hypertension. Angiotensin II binds to the AT1 receptor found in many tissues (e.g. vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland, kidneys and the heart) and elicits several important biological actions, including vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone. Angiotensin II also stimulates smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Losartan selectively blocks the AT1 receptor. In vitro and in vivo losartan and its pharmacologically active carboxylic acid metabolite E-3174 block all physiologically relevant actions of angiotensin II, regardless of the source or route of its synthesis.
Losartan does not have an agonist effect nor does it block other hormone receptors or ion channels important in cardiovascular regulation. Furthermore Losartan does not inhibit ACE (kininase II), the enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Consequently, there is no potentiation of undesirable bradykinin-mediated effects.
During administration of losartan, removal of the angiotensin II negative feedback on renin secretion leads to increased plasma renin activity (PRA). Increase in the PRA leads to an increase in angiotensin II in plasma. Despite these increases, antihypertensive activity and suppression of plasma aldosterone concentration are maintained, indicating effective angiotensin II receptor blockade. After discontinuation of losartan, PRA and angiotensin II values fell within three days to the baseline values.
Both losartan and its principal active metabolite have a far greater affinity for the AT1-receptor than for the AT2-receptor. The active metabolite is 10- to 40- times more active than losartan on a weight for weight basis.
In controlled clinical studies, once–daily administration of losartan to patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension produced statistically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Measurements of blood pressure 24 hours post-dose relative to 5 – 6 hours post-dose demonstrated blood pressure reduction over 24 hours; the natural diurnal rhythm was retained. Blood pressure reduction at the end of the dosing interval was 70 – 80 % of the effects seen 5-6 hours post-dose.
Discontinuation of losartan in hypertensive patients did not result in an abrupt rise in blood pressure (rebound). Despite the marked decrease in blood pressure, losartan had no clinically significant effect on heart rate.
Losartan is equally effective in males and females, and in younger (below the age of 65 years) and older hypertensive patients.
The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension [LIFE] study was a randomised, triple-blind, active-controlled study in 9193 hypertensive patients aged 55 to 80 years with ECG-documented left-ventricular hypertrophy. Patients were randomised to once daily losartan 50 mg or once daily atenolol 50 mg. If goal blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was not reached, hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) was added first and, if needed, the dose of losartan or atenolol was then increased to 100 mg once daily. Other antihypertensives, with the exception of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists or beta-blockers were added if necessary to reach the goal blood pressure.
The mean length of follow up was 4.8 years.
The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as measured by a reduction in the combined incidence of cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction. Blood pressure was significantly lowered to similar levels in the two groups. Treatment with losartan resulted in a 13.0% risk reduction (p=0.021, 95 % confidence interval 0.77-0.98) compared with atenolol for patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. This was mainly attributable to a reduction of the incidence of stroke. Treatment with losartan reduced the risk of stroke by 25% relative to atenolol (p=0.001 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.89). The rates of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction were not significantly different between the treatment groups.
In the LIFE-Study black patients treated with losartan had a higher risk of suffering the primary combined endpoint, i.e. a cardiovascular event (e.g. cardiac infarction, cardiovascular death) and especially stroke, than the black patients treated with atenolol. Therefore the results observed with losartan in comparison with atenolol in the LIFE study with regard to cardiovascular morbidity/mortality do not apply for black patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.
The Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Losartan RENAAL study was a controlled clinical study conducted worldwide in 1513 Type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria, with or without hypertension. 751 patients were treated with losartan.
The objective of the study was to demonstrate a nephroprotective effect of losartan potassium over and above the benefit of lowering blood pressure.
Patients with proteinuria and a serum creatinine of 1.3 – 3.0 mg/dl were randomised to receive losartan 50 mg once a day, titrated if necessary, to achieve blood pressure response, or to placebo, on a background of conventional antihypertensive therapy excluding ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists.
Investigators were instructed to titrate the study medication to 100 mg daily as appropriate; 72 % of patients were taking the 100 mg daily dose for the majority of the time. Other antihypertensive agents (diuretics, calcium antagonists, alpha- and beta-receptor blockers and also centrally acting antihypertensives) were permitted as supplementary treatment depending on the requirement in both groups. Patients were followed up for up to 4.6 years (3.4 years on average). The primary endpoint of the study was a composite endpoint of doubling of the serum creatinine end-stage renal failure (need for dialysis or transplantation) or death.
The results showed that the treatment with losartan (327 events) as compared with placebo (359 events) resulted in a 16.1 % risk reduction (p = 0.022) in the number of patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. For the following individual and combined components of the primary endpoint, the results showed a significant risk reduction in the group treated with losartan: 25.3 % risk reduction for doubling of the serum creatinine (p = 0.006); 28.6 % risk reduction for end-stage renal failure (p = 0.002); 19.9 % risk reduction for end-stage renal failure or death (p = 0.009); 21.0 % risk reduction for doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal failure (p = 0.01).
All-cause mortality rate was not significantly different between the two treatment groups. In this study losartan was generally well tolerated, as shown by a therapy discontinuation rate on account of adverse reactions that was comparable to the placebo group.
The Heart Failure Endpoint Evaluation of Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (HEAAL) study was a controlled clinical study conducted worldwide in 3834 patients aged 18 to 98 years with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) who were intolerant of ACE inhibitor treatment. Patients were randomised to receive losartan 50 mg once a day or losartan 150 mg, on a background of conventional therapy excluding ACE-inhibitors.
Patients were followed for over 4 years (median 4.7 years). The primary endpoint of the study was a composite endpoint of all cause death or hospitalisation for heart failure.
The results showed that treatment with 150 mg losartan (828 events) as compared with 50 mg losartan (889 events) resulted in a 10.1% risk reduction (p=0.027 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.99) in the number of patients reaching the primary composite endpoint. This was mainly attributable to a reduction of the incidence of hospitalisation for heart failure. Treatment with 150 mg losartan reduced the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure by 13.5% relative to 50 mg losartan (p=0.025 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98). The rate of all cause death was not significantly different between the treatment groups.
Renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalaemia were more common in the 150 mg group than in the 50 mg group, but these adverse events did not lead to significantly more treatment discontinuations in the 150 mg group.
ELITE I and ELITE II Studies
In the ELITE Study carried out over 48 weeks in 722 patients with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV), no difference was observed between the patients treated with losartan and those treated with captopril with regard to the primary endpoint of a long-term change in renal function. The observation of the ELITE I Study, that, compared with captopril, losartan reduced the mortality risk, was not confirmed in the subsequent ELITE II Study which is described in the following.
In the ELITE II Study losartan 50 mg once daily (starting dose 12.5 mg, increased to 25 mg, then 50mg once daily) was compared with captopril 50 mg three times daily (starting dose 12.5 mg, increased to 25 mg and then to 50 mg three times daily). The primary endpoint of this prospective study was the all-cause mortality.
In this study, 3152 patients with heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) were followed for almost two years (median: 1.5 years) in order to determine whether losartan is superior to captopril in reducing all cause mortality. The primary endpoint did not show any statistically significant difference between losartan and captopril in reducing all-cause mortality.
In both comparator-controlled (not placebo-controlled) clinical studies on patients with heart failure the tolerability of losartan was superior to that of captopril, measured on the basis of a significantly lower rate of discontinuations of therapy on account of adverse reactions and a significantly lower frequency of cough.
An increased mortality was observed in ELITE II in the small subgroup (22% of all HF patients) taking beta-blockers at baseline.
Dual Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes)) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.
ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.
These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.
The antihypertensive effect of losartan was established in a clinical study involving 177 hypertensive paediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age with a body weight > 20 kg and a glomerular filtration rate > 30 ml/ min/1.73 m2. Patients who weighed > 20kg to < 50 kg received either 2.5, 25 or 50 mg of losartan daily and patients who weighed> 50 kg received either 5, 50 or 100 mg of losartan daily. At the end of three weeks, losartan administration once daily lowered trough blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner.
Overall, there was a dose-response. The dose-response relationship became very obvious in the low dose group compared to the middle dose group (period I: -6.2 mmHg vs. -11.65 mmHg), but was attenuated when comparing the middle dose group with the high dose group (period I: -11.65 mmHg vs. -12.21 mmHg). The lowest doses studied, 2.5 mg and 5 mg, corresponding to an average daily dose of 0.07 mg/ kg, did not appear to offer consistent antihypertensive efficacy.
These results were confirmed during period II of the study where patients were randomised to continue losartan or placebo, after three weeks of treatment. The difference in blood pressure increase as compared to placebo was largest in the middle dose group (6.70 mmHg middle dose vs. 5.38 mmHg high dose). The rise in trough diastolic blood pressure was the same in patients receiving placebo and in those continuing losartan at the lowest dose in each group, again suggesting that the lowest dose in each group did not have significant antihypertensive effect.
Long-term effects of losartan on growth, puberty and general development have not been studied. The long-term efficacy of antihypertensive therapy with losartan in childhood to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has also not been established.
In hypertensive (N=60) and normotensive (N=246) children with proteinuria, the effect of losartan on proteinuria was evaluated in a 12-week placebo- and active-controlled (amlodipine) clinical study. Proteinuria was defined as urinary protein/creatinine ratio of ≥ 0.3. The hypertensive patients (ages 6 through 18 years) were randomised to receive either losartan (n=30) or amlodipine (n=30). The normotensive patients (ages 1 through 18 years) were randomised to receive either losartan (n=122) or placebo (n=124). Losartan was given at doses of 0.7 mg/kg to 1.4 mg/kg (up to maximum dose of 100 mg per day). Amlodipine was given at doses of 0.05 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg (up to a maximum dose of 5 mg per day).
Overall, after 12 weeks of treatment, patients receiving losartan experienced a statistically significant reduction from baseline in proteinuria of 36% versus 1% increase in placebo/amlodipine group (p ≤ 0.001). Hypertensive patients receiving losartan experienced a reduction from baseline proteinuria of -41.5% (95% CI -29.9;-51.1) versus +2.4% (95% CI -22.2;14.1) in the amlodipine group. The decline in both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was greater in the losartan group (-5.5/-3.8 mmHg) versus the amlodipine group (-0.1/+0.8 mm Hg). In normotensive children a small decrease in blood pressure was observed in the losartan group (-3.7/-3.4 mm Hg) compared to placebo. No significant correlation between the decline in proteinuria and blood pressure was noted, however it is possible that the decline in blood pressure was responsible, in part, for the decline in proteinuria in the losartan treated group.
Long-term effects of losartan in children with proteinuria were studied for up to 3 years in the open-label safety extension phase of the same study, in which all patients completing the 12-week base study were invited to participate. A total of 268 patients entered the open-label extension phase and were re-randomized to losartan (N=134) or enalapril (N=134) and 109 patients had ≥ 3 years of follow-up (pre-specified termination point of ≥ 100 patients completing 3 years of follow-up in the extension period). The dose ranges of losartan and enalapril, given according to investigator discretion, were 0.30 to 4.42 mg/kg/day and 0.02 to 1.13 mg/kg/day, respectively. The maximum daily doses of 50 mg for <50 kg body weight and 100 mg >50 kg were not exceeded for most patients during the extension phase of the study.
In summary, the results of the safety extension show that losartan was well-tolerated and led to sustained decreases in proteinuria with no appreciable change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over 3 years. For normotensive patients (n=205), enalapril had a numerically greater effect compared to losartan on proteinuria (-33.0% (95%CI -47.2;-15.0) vs -16.6% (95%CI -34.9; 6.8)) and on GFR (9.4 (95%CI 0.4; 18.4) vs -4.0 (95%CI -13.1; 5.0) ml/min/1.73m2)). For hypertensive patients (n=49), losartan had a numerically greater effect on proteinuria (-44.5% (95%CI -64.8; -12.4) vs -39.5% (95%CI -62.5; -2.2)) and GFR (18.9 (95%CI 5.2; 32.5) vs -13.4 (95%CI -27.3; 0.6)) ml/min/1.73m2.
An open label, dose-ranging clinical trial was conducted to study the safety and efficacy of losartan in paediatric patients aged 6 months to 6 years with hypertension. A total of 101 patients were randomized to one of three different starting doses of open-label losartan: a low dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (N=33), a medium dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day (N=34), or a high dose of 0.7 mg/kg/day (N=34). Of these, 27 were infants which were defined as children aged 6 months to 23 months. Study medication was titrated to the next dose level at Weeks 3, 6, and 9 for patients that were not at blood pressure goal and not yet on the maximal dose (1.4 mg/kg/day, not to exceed 100 mg/day) of losartan.
Of the 99 patients treated with study medication, 90 (90.9%) patients continued to the extension study with follow up visits every 3 months. The mean duration of therapy was 264 days.
In summary, the mean blood pressure decrease from baseline was similar across all treatment groups (change from baseline to Week 3 in SBP was -7.3, -7.6, and -6.7 mmHg for the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups, respectively; the reduction from baseline to Week 3 in DBP was -8.2, -5.1, and -6.7 mmHg for the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups.); however, there was no statistically significant dose-dependent response effect for SBP and DBP.
Losartan, at doses as high as 1.4 mg/kg, was generally well tolerated in hypertensive children aged 6 months to 6 years after 12 weeks of treatment. The overall safety profile appeared comparable between treatment groups.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Following oral administration, losartan is well absorbed and undergoes first-pass metabolism, forming an active carboxylic acid metabolite and other inactive metabolites. The systemic bioavailability of losartan tablets is approximately 33%. Mean peak concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite are reached in 1 hour and in 3-4 hours, respectively.
Both losartan and its active metabolite are ≥ 99% bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin. The volume of distribution of losartan is 34 litres.
About 14% of an intravenously or orally-administered dose of losartan is converted to its active metabolite. Following oral and intravenous administration of 14C-labelled losartan potassium, circulating plasma radioactivity primarily is attributed to losartan and its active metabolite. Minimal conversion of losartan to its active metabolite was seen in about one percent of individuals studied.
In addition to the active metabolite, inactive metabolites are formed.
Plasma clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is about 600 ml/min and 50 ml/min, respectively. Renal clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is about 74 ml/min and 26 ml/min, respectively. When losartan is administered orally, about 4% of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine, and about 6% of the dose is excreted in the urine as active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite are linear with oral losartan potassium doses up to 200 mg.
Following oral administration, plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite decline polyexponentially with a terminal half-life of about 2 hours and 6-9 hours, respectively. During once-daily dosing with 100 mg, neither losartan nor its active metabolite accumulates significantly in plasma.
Both biliary and urinary excretion contribute to the elimination of losartan and its metabolites. Following an oral dose/intravenous administration of 14C-labelled losartan in man, about 35% / 43% of radioactivity is recovered in the urine and 58% / 50% in the faeces.
Characteristics in patients
In elderly hypertensive patients the plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite do not differ essentially from those found in young hypertensive patients.
In female hypertensive patients the plasma levels of losartan were up to twice as high as in male hypertensive patients, while the plasma levels of the active metabolite did not differ between men and women.
In patients with mild to moderate alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, the plasma levels of losartan and its active metabolite after oral administration were respectively 5 and 1.7 times higher than in young male volunteers (see section 4.2 and 4.4).
Plasma concentrations of losartan are not altered in patients with a creatinine clearance above 10 ml/minute. Compared to patients with normal renal function, the AUC for losartan is about 2-times higher in haemodialysis dialysis patients.
The plasma concentrations of the active metabolite are not altered in patients with renal impairment or in heamodialysis patients.
Neither losartan nor the active metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis.
Pharmacokinetics in paediatric patients
The pharmacokinetics of losartan have been investigated in 50 hypertensive paediatric patients > 1 month to < 16 years of age following once daily oral administration of approximately 0.54 to 0.77 mg/kg of losartan (mean doses).
The results showed that the active metabolite is formed from losartan in all age groups. The results showed roughly similar pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan following oral administration in infants and toddlers, preschool children, school age children and adolescents. The pharmacokinetic parameters for the metabolite differed to a greater extent between the age groups. When comparing preschool children with adolescents these differences became statistically significant. Exposure in infants/ toddlers was comparatively high.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Preclinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of general pharmacology, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential. In repeated dose toxicity studies, the administration of losartan induced a decrease in the red blood cell parameters (erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit), a rise in urea-N in the serum and occasional rises in serum creatinine, a decrease in heart weight (without a histological correlate) and gastrointestinal changes (mucous membrane lesions, ulcers, erosions, haemorrhages). Like other substances that directly affect the renin-angiotensin system, losartan has been shown to induce adverse reactions on the late foetal development, resulting in foetal death and malformations.
- Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Core ingredients:Lactose monohydrate,Starch pregelatinized, Silica colloidal anhydrous, Microcrystalline cellulose, Magnesium stearate
Red Oxide of Iron and Titanium Dioxide USP
White film-coating colouring mixture containing:
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C. Store in the original package.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
White, opaque PVC blisters with aluminium foil lidding.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements.
7. Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Mumbai, India)
Unit No. 214, Old Bake House,
Maharashtra Chambers of commerce Lane,Fort,
Mumbai-400001 at: Ahmedabad- Gujarat, INDIA.
Losartan Potassium Tablets USP 12.5mg Taj pharma
Losartan Potassium Tablets USP 25mg Taj pharma
Losartan Potassium Tablets USP 50mg Taj pharma
Losartan Potassium Tablets USP 100mg Taj pharma
PACKAGE LEAFLET: INFORMATION FOR THE USER
Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.
- Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
- If you have any further questions, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.
- This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
- If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.
What is in this leaflet:
- What Losartan Tablets are and what they are used for
2. What you need to know before you take Losartan Tablets
3. How to take Losartan Tablets
4. Possible side effects
5. How to store Losartan Tablets
6. Contents of the pack and other information
- WHAT LOSARTAN TABLETS ARE AND WHAT THEY ARE USED FOR
Losartan belongs to a group of medicines known as angiotensin-II receptor antagonists.
Angiotensin-II is a substance produced in the body which binds to receptors in blood vessels, causing them to tighten. This results in an increase in blood pressure. Losartan prevents the binding of angiotensin-II to these receptors, causing the blood vessels to relax which in turn lowers the blood pressure. Losartan slows the decrease of kidney function in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes.
Losartan Tablets are used
- to treat patients with high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and in children and adolescents 6-18 years of age.
- to protect the kidney in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with laboratory evidence of impaired renal function and proteinuria ≥0.5 g per day (a condition in which urine contains an abnormal amount of protein).
- to treat patients with chronic heart failure when therapy with specific medicines called angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors, medicine used to lower high blood pressure) is not considered suitable by your doctor. If your heart failure has been stabilised with an ACE inhibitor you should not be switched to losartan.
- in patients with high blood pressure and a thickening of the left ventricle, Losartan Tablets have been shown to decrease the risk of stroke (“LIFE indication”).
- WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU TAKE LOSARTAN TABLETS
Do not take Losartan Tablets
- if you are allergic to losartan or to any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6),
- if you are more than 3 months pregnant. (It is better to avoid Losartan Tablets in early pregnancy – see Pregnancy),
- if your liver function is severely impaired,
- if you have diabetes or impaired kidney function and you are treated with a blood pressure lowering medicine containing aliskiren,
Warnings and precautions
Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before taking Losartan Tablets.
You must tell your doctor if you think you are (or might become) pregnant. Losartan Tablets are not recommended in early pregnancy, and must not be taken if you are more than 3 months pregnant, as it may cause serious harm to your baby if used at that stage (see pregnancy section).
It is important to tell your doctor before taking Losartan Tablets:
- if you have had a history of angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, throat, and/or tongue) (see also section 4 ‘Possible side effects’),
- if you suffer from excessive vomiting or diarrhoea leading to an extreme loss of fluid and/or salt in your body,
- if you receive diuretics (medicines that increase the amount of water that you pass out through your kidneys) or are under dietary salt restriction leading to an extreme loss of fluid and salt in your body (see section 3 ‘Dosage in special patient groups’),
- if you are known to have narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels leading to your kidneys or if you have received a kidney transplant recently,
- if your liver function is impaired (see sections 2 “Do not take Losartan Tablets” and 3 “Dosage in special patient groups“),
- if you suffer from heart failure with or without renal impairment or concomitant severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Special caution is necessary when you are treated with a ß-blocker concomitantly,
- if you have problems with your heart valves or heart muscle,
- if you suffer from coronary heart disease (caused by a reduced blood flow in the blood vessels of the heart) or from cerebrovascular disease (caused by a reduced blood circulation in the brain),
- if you suffer from primary hyperaldosteronism (a syndrome associated with increased secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal gland, caused by an abnormality within the gland),
- if you are taking any of the following medicines used to treat high blood pressure:
- an ACE-inhibitor (for example enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril), in particular if you have diabetes-related kidney problems.
Your doctor may check your kidney function, blood pressure, and the amount of electrolytes (e.g. potassium) in your blood at regular intervals.
See also information under the heading “Do not take Losartan Tablets“.
- If you are taking other medications that may increase serum potassium (see section 2 “Other medicines and Losartan Tablets)
Children and adolescents
Losartan has been studied in children. For more information, talk to your doctor. Losartan Tablets are not recommended for use in children suffering from kidney or liver problems, as limited data are available in these patient groups. Losartan Tablets are not recommended for use in children under 6 years old, as it has not been shown to work in this age group.
Other medicines and Losartan Tablets
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines.
Tell your doctor if you are taking potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes, potassium-sparing medicines such as certain diuretics (amiloride, triamteren, spironolactone), or other medicines that may increase serum potassium (e.g., heparin, trimethoprim-containing medicines), as the combination with Losartan is not advisable.
Take particular care if you are taking the following medicines while under treatment with Losartan Tablets:
- other blood pressure lowering medicines as they may additionally reduce your blood pressure.
Blood pressure may also be lowered by one of the following drugs/ class of drugs: tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, baclofene, amifostine,
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin, including Cox-2-inhibitors (medicines that reduce inflammation, and can be used to help relieve pain) as they may reduce the blood pressure lowering effect of losartan.
Your doctor may need to change your dose and/or to take other precautions:
- if you are taking an ACE-inhibitor or aliskiren (see also information under the headings “Do not take Losartan Tablets” and “Warnings and precautions“.
If your kidney function is impaired, the concomitant use of these medicines may lead to a worsening of the kidney function.
Lithium containing medicines should not be taken in combination with losartan without close supervision by your doctor. Special precautionary measures (e.g. blood tests) may be appropriate.
Losartan Tablets with food and drink
Losartan Tablets may be taken with or without food.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
You must tell your doctor if you think you are (or might become) pregnant. Your doctor will normally advise you to stop taking Losartan Tablets before you become pregnant or as soon as you know you are pregnant and will advise you to take another medicine instead of Losartan Tablets.
Losartan Tablets are not recommended in early pregnancy, and must not be taken when more than 3 months pregnant, as it may cause serious harm to your baby if used after the third month of pregnancy.
Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding or about to start breast-feeding. Losartan Tablets are not recommended for mothers who are breast-feeding, and your doctor may choose another treatment for you if you wish to breast-feed, especially if your baby is new-born, or born prematurely.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine.
Driving and using machines
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.
Losartan Tablets are unlikely to affect your ability to drive or use machines. However, as with many other medicines used to treat high blood pressure, losartan may cause dizziness or drowsiness in some people. If you experience dizziness or drowsiness, you should consult your doctor before attempting such activities.
Losartan Tablets contain lactose
Losartan Tablets contain lactose monohydrate. If you have been told by your doctor that you have an intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicine.
- HOW TO TAKE LOSARTAN TABLETS
Always take Losartan Tablets exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure. Your doctor will decide on the appropriate dose of Losartan Tablets, depending on your condition and whether you are taking other medicines. It is important to continue taking Losartan Tablets for as long as your doctor prescribes it in order to maintain smooth control of your blood pressure.
Adult patients with High Blood Pressure
Treatment usually starts with 50 mg losartan (one tablet Losartan 50 mg) once a day. The maximal blood pressure lowering effect should be reached 3-6 weeks after beginning treatment. In some patients the dose may later be increased to 100 mg losartan once daily (two tablets Losartan 50 mg or one tablet of Losartan 100 mg) once daily.
If you have the impression that the effect of losartan is too strong or too weak, please talk to your doctor or pharmacist.
Use in children and adolescents
Children below 6 years of age
Losartan Tablets are not recommended for use in children under 6 years old as it has not been shown to work in this age group.
Children aged 6 to 18 years old
The recommended starting dose in patients who weigh between 20 and 50 kg is 0.7 mg of losartan per kg of body weight administered once a day (up to 25 mg of Losartan Tablets). The doctor may increase the dose if blood pressure is not controlled.
Adult patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes
Treatment usually starts with 50 mg losartan (one tablet Losartan 50 mg) once a day. The dose may later be increased to 100 mg losartan (two tablets Losartan 50 mg or one tablet of Losartan 100 mg) once daily depending on your blood pressure response.
Losartan tablets may be administered with other blood pressure lowering medicines (e.g. diuretics, calcium channel blockers, alpha- or beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents) as well as with insulin and other commonly used medicines that decrease the level of glucose in the blood (e.g. sulfonylureas, glitazones and glucosidase inhibitors).
Adult patients with Heart Failure
Treatment usually starts with 12.5 mg losartan (one tablet Losartan 12.5 mg) once a day. Generally, the dose should be increased weekly step-by-step (i.e., 12.5 mg daily during the first week, 25 mg daily during the second week, 50 mg daily during the third week, 100 mg daily during the fourth week, 150 mg daily during the fifth week) up to the maintenance dose as determined by your physician.
A maximum dose of 150 mg losartan (for example, three tablets of Losartan 50 mg or one tablet each of Losartan 100 mg and Losartan 50 mg) once daily may be used.
In the treatment of heart failure, losartan is usually combined with a diuretic (medicine that increases the amount of water that you pass out through your kidneys) and/or digitalis (medicine that helps to make the heart stronger and more efficient) and/ or a beta-blocker.
Dosage in special patient groups
The doctor may advise a lower dose, especially when starting treatment in certain patients such as those treated with diuretics in high doses, in patients with liver impairment, or in patients over the age of 75 years. The use of losartan is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section “Do not take Losartan Tablets”).
The tablets should be swallowed with a glass of water. You should try to take your daily dose at about the same time each day.
It is important that you continue to take Losartan Tablets until your doctor tells you otherwise.
If you take more Losartan Tablets than you should
If you accidentally take too many tablets, or a child swallows some, contact your doctor immediately.
Symptoms of overdose are low blood pressure, increased heartbeat, possibly decreased heartbeat.
If you forget to take Losartan Tablets
If you accidentally miss a daily dose, just take the next dose as normal. Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten tablet. If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.
- POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Like all medicines, Losartan Tablets can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.
If you experience the following, stop taking losartan tablets and tell your doctor immediately or go to the casualty department of your nearest hospital:
A severe allergic reaction (rash, itching, swelling of the face, lips, mouth or throat that may cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing).
This is a serious but rare side effect, which affects more than 1 out of 10,000 patients but fewer than 1 out of 1,000 patients. You may need urgent medical attention or hospitalisation.
The following side effects have been reported with losartan:
Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people):
- low blood pressure (especially after excessive loss of water from the body within blood vessels e.g. in patients with severe heart failure or under treatment with high dose diuretics),
- dose-related orthostatic effects such as lowering of blood pressure appearing when rising from a lying or sitting position,
- too little sugar in the blood (hypoglycaemia),
- too much potassium in the blood (hyperkalaemia),
- changes in kidney function including kidney failure,
- reduced number of red blood cells (anaemia),
- increase in blood urea, serum creatinine and serum potassium in patients with heart failure,
Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people):
- sleep disorders,
- feeling of increased heart rate (palpitations),
- severe chest pain (angina pectoris),
- shortness of breath (dyspnoea),
- abdominal pain,
- severe constipation,
- hives (urticaria),
- itching (pruritus),
- localised swelling (oedema),
Rare (may affect up to 1 per 1,000 people):
- hypersensitivity reactions,
- inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis including Henoch-Schonlein purpura),
- numbness or tingling sensation (paraesthesia),
- fainting (syncope),
- very rapid and irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation),
- brain attack (stroke),
- inflammation of the liver (hepatitis),
- elevated blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, usually resolved upon discontinuation of treatment.
Not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data):
- reduced number of thrombocytes,
- liver function abnormalities,
- muscle and joint pain,
- flu-like symptoms,
- back pain and urinary tract infection,
- increased sensitivity to the sun (photosensitivity),
- unexplained muscle pain with dark (tea-coloured) urine (rhabdomyolysis),
- inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis),
- low levels of sodium in the blood (hyponatraemia),
- generally feeling unwell (malaise),
- ringing, buzzing, roaring, or clicking in the ears (tinitus),
- distorted sense of taste (dysgeusia).
Side effects in children are similar to those in adults.
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.
Reporting of side effects
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. By reporting side effects you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.
- HOW TO STORE LOSARTAN TABLETS
Keep this medicine out of the reach and sight of children.
Do not use Losartan Tablets after the expiry date which is stated on the carton after Exp. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
Do not store Losartan Tablets above 25°C. Store Losartan Tablets in the original package. Do not open the blister pack until you are ready to take the medicine.
Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help to protect the environment.
- CONTENTS OF THE PACK AND OTHER INFORMATION
What Losartan Tablets contain
The active substance is losartan potassium.
Each Losartan potassium Tablet contains 12.5mg, 25mg, 50mg or 100mg of losartan potassium.
The other ingredients are lactose monohydrate, starch pregelatinised, colloidal anhydrous silica, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, carnauba wax, hypromellose, titanium dioxide and macrogol.
What Losartan Tablets look like and contents of the pack
Losartan potassium 50mg Tablets are supplied as white, film-coated, round, biconvex tablets, quadrisected on one side.
Available in Pack Size: 7, 14, 28, 30, 50, 98, 100 and 500 tablets.
Not All Packs May be Marketed.
7. Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Mumbai, India)
Unit No. 214, Old Bake House,
Maharashtra Chambers of commerce Lane,Fort,
Mumbai-400001 at: Ahmedabad- Gujarat, INDIA.
PIL: Patient Information Leaflet
SmPC: Summary of Product Characteristics
The Summary of Product Characteristics (or SmPC) of Losartan Potassium Tablets is the most important regulatory document on a medicinal product because it is part of the marketing authorisation of a medicinal product and represents the basis of information for healthcare professionals on how to use the medicinal product safely and effectively.