Conjugated Estrogen Tablets USP 0.3mg, 0.625mg, 1.25mg Taj Pharma

Composition

a) Conjugated Estrogen Tablets USP 0.3mg
Each tablet contains:
Conjugated Estrogens             0.3mg
Excipients                                  q.s.

b) Conjugated Estrogen Tablets USP 0.625mg
Each tablet contains:
Conjugated Estrogens                0.625mg
Excipients                                   q.s.

c) Conjugated Estrogen Tablets USP 1.25mg
Each tablet contains:
Conjugated Estrogens                1.25mg
Excipients                                    q.s.

Description

Estrogen is a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries. Estrogen is necessary for many processes in the body.

Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of estrogen hormones used to treat menopause symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal changes, and to prevent osteoporosis (bone loss) in menopausal women. Conjugated estrogens are also used to replace estrogen in women with ovarian failure or other conditions that cause a lack of natural estrogen in the body.

Conjugated estrogens are sometimes used as part of cancer treatment in both women and men.

Pharmacologic Category

Estrogen Derivative

Pharmacology

Conjugated A/synthetic estrogens contain a mixture of 9 synthetic estrogen substances, including sodium estrone sulfate, sodium equilin sulfate, sodium equilenin sulfate, sodium 17 alpha-dihydroequilin sulfate, sodium 17 alpha-dihydroequilenin sulfate, sodium 17 alpha-estradiol sulfate, sodium 17 beta-estradiol sulfate, sodium 17 beta-dihydroequilin sulfate, and sodium 17 beta-dihydroequilenin sulfate. Estrogens are responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Estradiol is the principle intracellular human estrogen and is more potent than estrone and estriol at the receptor level; it is the primary estrogen secreted prior to menopause. Following menopause, estrone and estrone sulfate are more highly produced. Estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone through a negative feedback system; estrogen replacement reduces elevated levels of these hormones in postmenopausal women.

Absorption

Well absorbed over a period of several hours

Metabolism

Hepatic via CYP3A4; estradiol is converted to estrone and estriol; also undergoes enterohepatic recirculation; estrone sulfate is the main metabolite in postmenopausal women

Excretion

Urine (primarily estriol, also as estradiol, estrone, and conjugates)

Protein Binding

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin

Contraindications

Angioedema or anaphylactic reaction to estrogen conjugated A synthetic or any component of the formulation; undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding; DVT or PE (current or history of); active or history of arterial thromboembolic disease (eg, stroke, MI); breast cancer (known, suspected or history of); estrogen-dependent tumor (known or suspected); hepatic impairment or disease; known protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency or other known thrombophilic disorders; pregnancy.

Dosing:

Adult

Note: Cenestin has been discontinued in the US for more than 1 year.

General dosing guidelines: When treating postmenopausal women, use estrogens for the shortest duration possible at the lowest effective dose consistent with treatment goals. Reevaluate patients as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary. Consider use of an estrogen with a progestin in postmenopausal women with a uterus. Women who have had a hysterectomy generally do not need a progestin; however one may be needed if there is a history of endometriosis.

Vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: Oral: Initial: 0.45 mg once daily. Adjust dose based upon patient response.

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause: Oral: 0.3 mg once daily

Dosing: Geriatric

Note: Women >65 years of age should be assessed for benefits and risks of treatment; possible adjustments to safer lower-dose and/or route of administration should be considered. The Beers Criteria recommends avoiding systemic estrogen therapy in patients ≥65 years of age (independent of diagnosis or condition).

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Administer at the same time each day.

Drug Interactions

Ajmaline: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Anastrozole: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anastrozole. Avoid combination

Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human): Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human). Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects. Management: Carefully weigh the prospective benefits of estrogens against the potential increased risk of procoagulant effects and thromboembolism. Use is considered contraindicated under some circumstances. Refer to related guidelines for specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Ascorbic Acid: May increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

C1 inhibitors: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of C1 inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Chenodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Chenodiol. Management: Monitor clinical response to chenodiol closely when used together with any estrogen derivative. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Cosyntropin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the diagnostic effect of Cosyntropin. Management: Discontinue estrogen containing drugs 4 to 6 weeks prior to cosyntropin (ACTH) testing. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dantrolene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Dantrolene. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Dehydroepiandrosterone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Avoid combination

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Exemestane: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Exemestane. Avoid combination

Hemin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hemin. Avoid combination

Herbs (Estrogenic Properties): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Hyaluronidase: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving estrogens (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

Immune Globulin: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Immune Globulin. Monitor therapy

Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the diagnostic effect of Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide. Avoid combination

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

LamoTRIgine: Estrogen Derivatives may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Monitor therapy

Lenalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Lenalidomide. Monitor therapy

Lorlatinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Avoid concurrent use of lorlatinib with any CYP3A4 substrates for which a minimal decrease in serum concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate could lead to therapeutic failure and serious clinical consequences. Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mivacurium: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Mivacurium. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective): May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Ospemifene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ospemifene. Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ospemifene. Avoid combination

Pomalidomide: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Canadian pomalidomide labeling recommends caution with use of hormone replacement therapy and states that hormonal contraceptives are not recommended. US pomalidomide labeling does not contain these specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Somatropin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Somatropin. Shown to be a concern with oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Management: Monitor for reduced growth hormone efficacy. A larger somatropin dose may be required to reach treatment goal. This interaction does not appear to apply to non-orally administered estrogens (e.g., transdermal, vaginal ring). Consider therapy modification

Succinylcholine: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Succinylcholine. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
Exceptions: Dyphylline. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the dermatologic adverse effect of Tipranavir. The combination of tipranavir/ritonavir and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone was associated with a high incidence of skin rash. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Women using hormonal contraceptives should consider alternative, non-hormonal forms of contraception. Consider therapy modification

TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible. If combined use is necessary, initiate tizanidine at an adult dose of 2 mg and increase in 2 to 4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Ursodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ursodiol. Monitor therapy

Side effects:

Commonly reported side effects of conjugated estrogens include: infection, upper respiratory tract infection, abdominal pain, back pain, dizziness, dyspepsia, headache, heavy menstrual bleeding, lower limb cramp, paresthesia, and mastalgia.

Other side effects include: anxiety, constipation, diarrhea, hypertonia, increased cough, vaginitis, and vomiting. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (11% to 68%), paresthesia (8% to 33%), dizziness (11%), pain (11%)

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (9% to 28%), nausea (9% to 18%)

Genitourinary: Mastalgia (29%), endometrial hyperplasia (19%), uterine hemorrhage (14%)

Infection: Infection (2% to 14%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (14%)

Respiratory: Upper respiratory tract infection (13%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Anxiety (6%), hypertonia (6%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Weight gain (6%)

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia (10%), vomiting (7%), constipation (6%), diarrhea (6%)

Genitourinary: Vaginitis (8%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Leg cramps (10%)

Respiratory: Rhinitis (6% to 8%), cough (6%)

Miscellaneous: Fever (1%)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

  • Breast cancer:  Based on data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, an increased risk of invasive breast cancer was observed in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens (CE) in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).This risk may be associated with duration of use and declines once combined therapy is discontinued. The risk of invasive breast cancer was decreased in postmenopausal women with a hysterectomy using CE only, regardless of weight. However, the risk was not significantly decreased in women at high risk for breast cancer (family history of breast cancer, personal history of benign breast disease. An increase in abnormal mammogram findings has also been reported with estrogen alone or in combination with progestin therapy. Estrogen use may also lead to severe hypercalcemia in patients with breast cancer and bone metastases; discontinue estrogen if hypercalcemia occurs. Use is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected breast cancer.
  • Dementia: Estrogens with or without progestin should not be used to prevent dementia. In the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), an increased incidence of probable dementia was observed in women ≥65 years of age taking CE alone or in combination with MPA.
  • Endometrial cancer:  The use of unopposed estrogen in women with a uterus is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The addition of a progestin to estrogen therapy may decrease the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling if indicated, should be performed to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding.There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens at equivalent estrogen doses. The risk of endometrial cancer appears to be dose and duration dependent; risk appears to be greatest with use ≥5 years and may persist following discontinuation of therapy.
  • Endometriosis: Estrogens may exacerbate endometriosis. Malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants has been reported posthysterectomy with unopposed estrogen therapy. Consider adding a progestin in women with residual endometriosis posthysterectomy.
  • Inherited thrombophilia: Women with inherited thrombophilias (eg, protein C or S deficiency) may have increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Use is contraindicated in women with protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders.
  • Lipid effects: Estrogen compounds are generally associated with lipid effects such as increased HDL-cholesterol and decreased LDL-cholesterol. Triglycerides may also be increased in women with preexisting hypertriglyceridemia; discontinue if pancreatitis occurs.
  • Ovarian cancer: Postmenopausal estrogens with or without progestins may increase the risk of ovarian cancer; however, the absolute risk to an individual woman is small. Although results from various studies are not consistent, risk does not appear to be significantly associated with the duration, route, or dose of therapy. In one study, the risk decreased after 2 years following discontinuation of therapy. Although the risk of ovarian cancer is rare, women who are at an increased risk (eg, family history) should be counseled about the association.
  • Retinal vascular thrombosis: Estrogens may cause retinal vascular thrombosis; discontinue if migraine, loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, or other visual disturbances occur; discontinue permanently if papilledema or retinal vascular lesions are observed on examination.

Disease-related concerns:

  • Asthma: Use caution in patients with asthma; may exacerbate disease.
  • Carbohydrate intolerance: May have adverse effects on glucose tolerance; use caution in women with diabetes.
  • Cardiovascular disease: Estrogens with or without progestin should not be used to prevent cardiovascular disease. Using data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and stroke has been reported with CE and an increased risk of DVT, stroke, pulmonary emboli (PE) and myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported with CE with MPA in postmenopausal women 50 to 79 years of age.Additional risk factors include diabetes mellitus,hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, SLE, obesity, tobacco use, and/or history of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors should be managed appropriately; discontinue use immediately if adverse cardiovascular events occur or are suspected. Use is contraindicated in women with active DVT or PE (or a history of these conditions) or in women with active or recent arterial thromboembolic disease (stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions.
  • Diseases exacerbated by fluid retention: Use with caution in patients with diseases which may be exacerbated by fluid retention, including cardiac or renal dysfunction.
  • Epilepsy: Use caution with epilepsy; may exacerbate disease.
  • Gallbladder disease: Use of postmenopausal estrogen may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery.
  • Hepatic dysfunction: Estrogens are poorly metabolized in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Use caution with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with prior estrogen use or pregnancy. Discontinue if jaundice develops or if acute or chronic hepatic disturbances occur. Use is contraindicated with hepatic impairment or disease.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas: Use with caution in patients with hepatic hemangiomas; may exacerbate disease.
  • Hereditary angioedema: Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate angioedema symptoms in women with hereditary angioedema.
  • Hypoparathyroidism: Use caution with hypoparathyroidism; estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.
  • Migraine: Use caution with migraine; may exacerbate disease.
  • Porphyria: Use with caution in patients with porphyria; may exacerbate disease.
  • Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.
  • SLE: Use with caution in patients with SLE; may exacerbate disease.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

  • Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
  • Thyroid replacement therapy: Estrogens may increase thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone while receiving estrogens.

Special populations:

  • Surgical patients: Whenever possible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks prior to elective surgery associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Other warnings/precautions:

  • Laboratory changes: The use of estrogens and/or progestins may change the results of some laboratory tests (eg, coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, binding proteins). The dose, route, and the specific estrogen/progestin influences these changes. In addition, personal risk factors (eg, cardiovascular disease, smoking, diabetes, age) also contribute to adverse events; use of specific products may be contraindicated in women with certain risk factors.
  • Risks vs benefits:  Estrogens with or without progestin should be used for the shortest duration possible at the lowest effective dose consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.Patients should be reevaluated as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary. Available data related to treatment risks are from Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, which evaluated oral CE 0.625 mg with or without MPA 2.5 mg relative to placebo in postmenopausal women. Other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied. Outcomes reported from clinical trials using CE with or without MPA should be assumed to be similar for other doses and other dosage forms of estrogens and progestins until comparable data becomes available.Women who are early in menopause, who are in good cardiovascular health, and who are at low risk for adverse cardiovascular events can be considered candidates for estrogen with or without progestin therapy for the relief of menopausal symptoms. Use of a transdermal product should be considered over an oral agent in women requiring systemic therapy who have risk factors for venous thromboembolism or coronary heart disease.
  • Vulvar and vaginal atrophy use: Moderate-to-severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and atrophic vaginitis. When used solely for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy, topical vaginal products should be considered.

Pregnancy Considerations

In general, the use of estrogen and progestin as in combination hormonal contraceptives have not been associated with teratogenic effects when inadvertently taken early in pregnancy. This product is contraindicated for use during pregnancy.

Most frequently checked interactions

View interaction reports for conjugated estrogens and the medicines listed below.

  • Ambien (zolpidem)
  • Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin)
  • Calcium 600 D (calcium / vitamin d)
  • Celebrex (celecoxib)
  • Crestor (rosuvastatin)
  • Cymbalta (duloxetine)
  • esterified estrogens
  • Fish Oil (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids)
  • levothyroxine
  • Lexapro (escitalopram)
  • Lipitor (atorvastatin)
  • Lyrica (pregabalin)
  • medroxyprogesterone
  • Nexium (esomeprazole)
  • Norco (acetaminophen / hydrocodone)
  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen)
  • Prilosec (omeprazole)
  • progesterone
  • Protonix (pantoprazole)
  • Singulair (montelukast)
  • Synthroid (levothyroxine)
  • Topamax (topiramate)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

Conjugated estrogens alcohol/food interactions

There are alcohol/food interactions with conjugated estrogens

Conjugated estrogens disease interactions

There are 17 disease interactions with conjugated estrogens which include:

  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • carcinomas (estrogenic)
  • hypercalcemia in breast cancer
  • hypertension
  • thromboembolism/cardiovascular
  • hepatic neoplasms
  • angioedema
  • gallbladder disease
  • hypercalcemia
  • hyperlipidemia
  • liver disease
  • melasma
  • depression
  • fluid retention
  • glucose intolerance
  • retinal thrombosis
  • thyroid function tests

Storage
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Manufactured in India by:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.
Mumbai, India
Unit No. 214.Old Bake House,
Maharashtra chambers of  Commerce Lane,
Fort, Mumbai – 400001
at:Gujarat, INDIA.
Customer Service and Product Inquiries:
1-800-TRY-FIRST (1-800-222-434 & 1-800-222-825)
Monday through Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. EST
E-mail: tajgroup@tajpharma.com