Bupropion HCl Extended Release Tablets 150mg USP
- Name of the medicinal product
Bupropion HCl extended release tablets 150mg USP Taj Pharma
- Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each film coated extended release tablet contains
Bupropion hydrochloride USP 150mg
Colour :- Titanium dioxide
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
- Pharmaceutical form
- Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Bupropion tablets are indicated as an aid to smoking cessation in combination with motivational support in nicotine-dependent patients.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Use in Adults
It is recommended that treatment is started while the patient is still smoking and a “target stop date” set within the first two weeks of treatment with Bupropion preferably in the second week.
The initial dose is 150mg to be taken daily for six days, increasing on day seven to 150mg twice daily.
There should be an interval of at least 8 hours between successive doses.
The maximum single dose must not exceed 150mg and the maximum total daily dose must not exceed 300mg.
Insomnia is a very common adverse event which can be reduced by avoiding bedtime doses of Bupropion (provided there is at least 8 hours between doses).
Use in patients under 18 years of age is not recommended as the safety and efficacy of Bupropion tablets have not been evaluated in these patients.
Bupropion should be used with caution in older people. Greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The recommended dose in older people is 150mg once a day (see section 4.4).
Patients with hepatic impairment
Bupropion should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. Because of increased variability in the pharmacokinetics in patients with mild to moderate impairment the recommended dose in these patients is 150mg once a day.
Patients with renal impairment
Bupropion should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency. The recommended dose in these patients is 150mg once a day (see section 4.4).
Method of administration
Bupropion should be used in accordance with smoking cessation guidelines.
Prescribers should assess the patient’s motivation to quit. Smoking cessation therapies are more likely to succeed in those patients whom are motivated to quit and have motivational support.
Patients should be treated for 7-9 weeks. If at seven weeks no effect is seen, treatment should be discontinued.
Bupropion tablets should be swallowed whole. The tablets should not be cut, crushed or chewed as this may lead to an increased risk of adverse effects including seizures.
Bupropion can be taken with or without food (see sections 4.5 and 5.2).
Although discontinuation reactions are not expected with Bupropion a tapering-off period may be considered.
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to bupropion or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients with a current seizure disorder or any history of seizures.
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients with a known central nervous system (CNS) tumour.
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients who, at any time during treatment, are undergoing abrupt withdrawal from alcohol or any medicinal product known to be associated with risk of seizures on withdrawal (in particular benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like agents).
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients with a current or previous diagnosis of bulimia or anorexia nervosa.
Bupropion is contraindicated for use in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis.
Concomitant use of Bupropion and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of irreversible MAOIs and initiation of treatment with Zyban. For reversible MAOIs, a 24 hour period is sufficient.
Bupropion is contraindicated in patients with a history of bipolar disorder as it may precipitate a manic episode during the depressed phase of their illness.
Bupropion should not be administered to patients being treated with any other medicinal product containing bupropion as the incidence of seizures is dose dependent and to avoid overdosage.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
The recommended dose of Bupropion must not be exceeded, since bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizure. At doses up to the maximum recommended daily dose (300mg of Bupropion daily), the incidence of seizures is approximately 0.1% (1/1,000).
There is an increased risk of seizures occurring with the use of Bupropion in the presence of predisposing risk factors which lower the seizure threshold. Bupropion must not be used in patients with predisposing risk factors unless there is a compelling clinical justification for which the potential medical benefit of smoking cessation outweighs the potential increased risk of seizure. In these patients, a maximum dose of 150mg daily should be considered for the duration of treatment.
All patients should be assessed for predisposing risk factors, which include:
- concomitant administration of other medicinal products known to lower the seizure threshold (e.g., antipsychotics, antidepressants, antimalarials, tramadol, theophylline, systemic steroids, quinolones and sedating antihistamines). For patients prescribed such medicinal products whilst taking Bupropion a maximum dose of 150mg daily for the remainder of their treatment should be considered.
- alcohol abuse (see also section 4.3)
- history of head trauma
- diabetes treated with hypoglycaemics or insulin
- use of stimulants or anorectic products.
Bupropion should be discontinued and not recommenced in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.
Interactions (see section 4.5)
Due to pharmacokinetic interactions plasma levels of bupropion or its metabolites may be altered, which may increase the potential for undesirable effects (e.g. dry mouth, insomnia, seizures). Therefore care should be taken when bupropion is given concomitantly with medicinal products which can induce or inhibit the metabolism of bupropion.
Bupropion inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 2D6. Caution is advised when medicinal products metabolised by this enzyme are administered concomitantly.
In the literature it has been shown that medications that inhibit CYP2D6 may lead to reduced concentrations of endoxifen which is the active metabolite of tamoxifen. Therefore the use of bupropion, which is an inhibitor of CYP2D6, should whenever possible be avoided during tamoxifen treatment (see section 4.5).
Bupropion is a centrally-acting noradrenaline/dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Neuropsychiatric reactions have been reported (see section 4.8). In particular, psychotic and manic symptomatology have been reported mainly in patients with a known history of psychiatric illness.
Depressed mood may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal. Depression, rarely including suicidal ideation and behaviour (including suicide attempt), has been reported in patients undergoing a smoking cessation attempt. These symptoms have also been reported during Bupropion treatment, and generally occurred early during the treatment course.
Bupropion is indicated for the treatment of depression in some countries. A meta-analysis of placebo controlled clinical trials of antidepressant drugs in adults with major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders showed an increased risk of suicidal thinking and behaviour associated with antidepressant use compared to placebo in patients less than 25 years old.
Clinicians should be aware of the possible emergence of significant depressive symptomatology in patients undergoing a smoking cessation attempt, and should advise patients accordingly.
Data in animals suggest a potential for drug abuse. However, studies on abuse liability in humans and extensive clinical experience show that bupropion has low abuse potential.
Bupropion should be discontinued if patients experience hypersensitivity reactions during treatment. Clinicians should be aware that symptoms may progress or recur following the discontinuation of Bupropion and should ensure symptomatic treatment is administered for an adequate length of time (at least one week). Symptoms typically include skin rash, pruritus, urticaria or chest pain but more severe reactions may include angioedema, dyspnoea/bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, erythema multiforme or Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Arthralgia, myalgia and fever have also been reported in association with rash and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness (see section 4.8). In most patients symptoms improved after stopping bupropion and initiating treatment with antihistamine or corticosteroids, and resolved over time.
In clinical practice, hypertension, which in some cases may be severe (see section 4.8) and require acute treatment, has been reported in patients receiving bupropion alone and in combination with nicotine replacement therapy. This has been observed in patients with and without pre-existing hypertension. A baseline blood pressure should be obtained at the start of treatment with subsequent monitoring, especially in patients with pre-existing hypertension. Consideration should be given to discontinuation of Bupropion if a clinically significant increase in blood pressure is observed.
Limited clinical trial data suggest that higher smoking cessation rates may be achieved by the combination use of Bupropion together with Nicotine Transdermal System (NTS). However, a higher rate of treatment-emergent hypertension was noted in the combination therapy group. If combination therapy with a NTS is used, caution must be exercised and weekly monitoring of blood pressure is recommended. Prior to initiation of combination therapy prescribers should consult the prescribing information of the relevant NTS.
Specific patient groups
Older people – Clinical experience with bupropion has not identified any differences in tolerability between older and other adult patients. However, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out; hence 150mg once a day is the recommended dose in these patients (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).
Patients with hepatic impairment – Bupropion is extensively metabolised in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolised. No statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of bupropion were observed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis compared with healthy volunteers, but bupropion plasma levels showed a higher variability between individual patients. Therefore Bupropion should be used with caution in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment and 150mg once a day is the recommended dose in these patients.
All patients with hepatic impairment should be closely monitored for possible undesirable effects (e.g., insomnia, dry mouth, seizures) that could indicate high drug or metabolite levels.
Patients with renal impairment – Bupropion is mainly excreted into urine as its metabolites. Therefore 150mg once a day is the recommended dose in patients with renal impairment, as bupropion and its active metabolites may accumulate to a greater extent than usual (see sections 4.2 and 5.2). The patient should be closely monitored for possible undesirable effects that could indicate high drug or metabolite levels.
Interference with urine testing
Having an amphetamine-like chemical structure, bupropion interferes with the assay used in some rapid urine drug screens, which can result in false positive readings, particularly for amphetamines. A positive result should usually be confirmed with a more specific method.
Inappropriate routes of administration
Bupropion is intended for oral use only. The inhalation of crushed tablets or injection of dissolved bupropion has been reported, and may lead to a rapid release, faster absorption and a potential overdose. Seizures and/or cases of death have been reported when bupropion has been administered intra-nasally or by parenteral injection.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
In patients receiving medicinal products known to lower the seizure threshold, Bupropion must only be used if there is a compelling clinical justification for which the potential medical benefit of smoking cessation outweighs the increased risk of seizure (see section 4.4).
The effect of bupropion on other medicinal products:
Although not metabolised by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme, bupropion and its main metabolite, hydroxybupropion, inhibit the CYP2D6 pathway. Co-administration of bupropion hydrochloride and desipramine to healthy volunteers known to be extensive metabolisers of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme resulted in large (2- to 5-fold) increases in the Cmax and AUC of desipramine. Inhibition of CYP2D6 was present for at least 7 days after the last dose of bupropion hydrochloride.
Concomitant therapy with medicinal products with narrow therapeutic indices that are predominantly metabolised by CYP2D6 should be initiated at the lower end of the dose range of the concomitant medicinal product. Such medicinal products include certain antidepressants (e.g. desipramine, imipramine, paroxetine), antipsychotics (e.g. risperidone, thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g. metoprolol), and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g. propafanone, flecainide). If Bupropion is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving such a medicinal product, the need to decrease the dose of the original medicinal product should be considered. In these cases the expected benefit of treatment with Bupropion should be carefully considered compared with the potential risks.
Drugs which require metabolic activation by CYP2D6 in order to be effective (e.g. tamoxifen), may have reduced efficacy when administered concomitantly with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as bupropion (see section 4.4).
Although citalopram is not primarily metabolised by CYP2D6, in one study, bupropion increased the Cmax and AUC of citalopram by 30% and 40%, respectively.
Co-administration of digoxin with bupropion may decrease digoxin levels. Digoxin AUC 0–24 h was decreased and renal clearance was increased in healthy volunteers, based on a cross-study comparison. Clinicians should be aware that digoxin levels may rise on discontinuation of bupropion and the patient should be monitored for possible digoxin toxicity.
The effect of other medicinal products on bupropion:
Bupropion is metabolised to its major active metabolite hydroxybupropion primarily by the cytochrome P450 CYP2B6 (see section 5.2). Co-administration of medicinal products that may affect the metabolism of bupropion via CYP2B6 isoenzyme (e.g. CYP2B6 substrates: cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and CYP2B6 inhibitors: orphenadrine, ticlopidine, clopidogrel), may result in increased bupropion plasma levels and lower levels of active metabolite hydroxy-bupropion. The clinical consequences of the inhibition of the metabolism of bupropion via CYP2B6 enzyme and the consequent changes in the bupropion-hydroxybupropion ratio are currently unknown.
Since bupropion is extensively metabolised, caution is advised when bupropion is co-administered with medicinal products known to induce metabolism (e.g. carbamazepine, phenytoin, ritonavir, efavirenz ) or inhibit metabolism (e.g. valproate), as these may affect its clinical efficacy and safety.
In a series of studies in healthy volunteers, ritonavir (100mg twice daily or 600mg twice daily) or ritonavir 100mg plus lopinavir 400mg twice daily reduced the exposure of bupropion and its major metabolites in a dose dependent manner by approximately 20 to 80% (see section 5.2).
Similarly, efavirenz 600mg once daily for two weeks reduced the exposure of bupropion by approximately 55% in healthy volunteers.
Patients receiving any of these drugs with bupropion may need increased doses of bupropion but the maximum recommended dose of bupropion should not be exceeded.
Nicotine, administered transdermally by patches, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites.
Smoking is associated with an increase in CYP1A2 activity. After cessation of smoking, reduced clearance of medicinal products metabolised by this enzyme, with subsequent increases in plasma levels, may occur. This may be particularly important for those medicinal products primarily metabolised by CYP1A2 with narrow therapeutic windows (e.g. theophylline, tacrine and clozapine). The clinical consequences of smoking cessation on other medicinal products that are partially metabolised by CYP1A2 (e.g., imipramine, olanzapine, clomipramine, and fluvoxamine) are unknown. In addition, limited data indicate that the metabolism of flecainide or pentazocine may also be induced by smoking.
Administration of Bupropion to patients receiving either levodopa or amantadine concurrently should be undertaken with caution. Limited clinical data suggest a higher incidence of undesirable effects (e.g. nausea, vomiting, and neuropsychiatric events – see section 4.8) in patients receiving bupropion concurrently with either levodopa or amantadine.
Although clinical data do not identify a pharmacokinetic interaction between bupropion and alcohol, there have been rare reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients drinking alcohol during Bupropion treatment. The consumption of alcohol during Bupropion treatment should be minimised or avoided.
Since monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors also enhance the catecholaminergic pathways, by a different mechanism from bupropion, concomitant use of Bupropion and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated (see section 4.3) as there is an increased possibility of adverse reactions from their co-administration. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of irreversible MAOIs and initiation of treatment with Zyban. For reversible MAOIs, a 24 hour period is sufficient.
Studies suggest that exposure to bupropion may be increased when sustained release bupropion tablets are taken with a high fat meal (see section 5.2).
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Some epidemiological studies of pregnancy outcomes following maternal exposure to bupropion in the first trimester have reported an association with increased risk of certain congenital cardiovascular malformations specifically ventricular septal defects and left outflow tract heart defects. These findings are not consistent across studies. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). Bupropion should not be used in pregnancy. Pregnant women should be encouraged to quit smoking without the use of pharmacotherapy.
Bupropion and its metabolites are excreted in human breast milk. A decision on whether to abstain from breast-feeding or to abstain from therapy with Bupropion should be made taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the newborn/infant and the benefit of Bupropion therapy to the mother.
There are no data on the effect of bupropion on human fertility. A reproductive study in rats revealed no evidence of impaired fertility (see section 5.3).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
As with other CNS acting drugs bupropion may affect ability to perform tasks that require judgement or motor and cognitive skills. Bupropion has also been reported to cause dizziness and lightheadedness. Patients should therefore exercise caution before driving or use of machinery until they are reasonably certain Bupropion does not adversely affect their performance.
4.8 Undesirable effects
The list below provides information on the undesirable effects identified from clinical experience, categorised by incidence and System Organ Class body system. It is important to note that smoking cessation is often associated with nicotine withdrawal symptoms (e.g. agitation, insomnia, tremor, sweating), some of which are also recognised as adverse events associated with Zyban.
Undesirable effects are ranked under headings of frequency using the following convention; very common (>1/10); common (>1/100, <1/10); uncommon (>1/1,000, <1/100); rare (>1/10000, <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders||Not known||Anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia|
|Immune system disorders*||Common||Hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria|
|Rare||More severe hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema, dyspnoea/bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock. Arthralgia, myalgia and fever have also been reported in association with rash and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Uncommon||Anorexia|
|Rare||Blood glucose disturbances|
|Psychiatric disorders||Very common||Insomnia (see section 4.2)|
|Common||Depression (see section 4.4), agitation, anxiety|
|Rare||Irritability, hostility, hallucinations, depersonalisation, abnormal dreams including nightmares|
|Very rare||Delusions, paranoid ideation, restlessness, aggression|
|Not known||Suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour***, psychosis|
|Nervous system disorders||Common||Tremor, concentration disturbance, headache, dizziness, taste disorders|
|Rare||Seizures (see below)**, dystonia, ataxia, Parkinsonism, incoordination, memory impairment, paraesthesia, syncope|
|Eye disorders||Uncommon||Visual disturbance|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders||Uncommon||Tinnitus|
|Vascular disorders||Uncommon||Increased blood pressure (sometimes severe), flushing|
|Rare||Vasodilation, postural hypotension|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Common||Dry mouth, gastrointestinal disturbance including nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation|
|Hepatobiliary disorders||Rare||Elevated liver enzymes, jaundice, hepatitis|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders*||Common||Rash, pruritus, sweating.|
|Rare||Erythema multiforme and Stevens Johnson syndrome have also been reported. Exacerbation of psoriasis|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Rare||Twitching|
|Renal and urinary disorders||Rare||Urinary frequency and/or retention|
|Very rare||Urinary incontinence|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Common||Fever|
|Uncommon||Chest pain, asthenia|
* Hypersensitivity may manifest as skin reactions. See “Immune system disorders” and “Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders”.
**The incidence of seizures is approximately 0.1% (1/1,000). The most common type of seizures is generalised tonic-clonic seizures, a seizure type which can result in some cases in post-ictal confusion or memory impairment. (see section 4.4).
***Cases of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour have been reported during bupropion therapy (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.
Acute ingestion of doses in excess of 10 times the maximum therapeutic dose has been reported. In addition to those events reported as Undesirable Effects, overdose has resulted in symptoms including drowsiness, loss of consciousness and/or ECG changes such as conduction disturbances (including QRS prolongation), arrhythmias and tachycardia. QTc prolongation has also been reported but was generally seen in conjunction with QRS prolongation and increased heart rate. Although most patients recovered without sequelae, deaths associated with bupropion have been reported rarely in patients ingesting large overdoses of the drug.
Treatment: In the event of overdose, hospitalisation is advised. ECG and vital signs should be monitored.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation. The use of activated charcoal is recommended. No specific antidote for bupropion is known. Further management should be as clinically indicated.
- Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other antidepressants.
Mechanism of action
Bupropion is a selective inhibitor of the neuronal re-uptake of catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine) with minimal effect on the re-uptake of indolamines (serotonin) and does not inhibit either monoamine oxidase. The mechanism by which bupropion enhances the ability of patients to abstain from smoking is unknown.
However, it is presumed that this action is mediated by noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic mechanisms.
The prospectively observed proportion of cardiac birth defects in pregnancies with prenatal exposure to bupropion in the first trimester in the international pregnancy register was 9/675 (1.3%).
In a retrospective study there was no greater proportion of congenital malformations or cardiovascular malformations amongst more than a thousand first trimester exposures to bupropion compared with the use of other antidepressants.
In a retrospective analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a statistically significant association was observed between the occurrence of a left outflow tract heart defect in the infant and self-reported maternal bupropion use in early pregnancy. No association was observed between maternal bupropion use and any other type of cardiac defect or with all categories of heart defects combined.
A further analysis of data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study found no statistically significant increase of left outflow tract heart defects with maternal bupropion use. However, a statistically significant association was observed for ventricular septal defects following the use of bupropion alone during the first trimester.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
After oral administration of 150mg bupropion hydrochloride as a extended releasetablet to healthy volunteers, maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of approximately 100 nanograms per ml are observed after about 2.5 to 3 hours. The AUC and Cmax values of bupropion and its active metabolites hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion increase dose proportionally over a dose range of 50-200mg following single dosing and over a dose range of 300-450mg/day following chronic dosing. The Cmax and AUC values of hydroxybupropion are approximately 3 and 14 times higher, respectively, than bupropion Cmax and AUC values. The Cmax of threohydrobupropion is comparable with the Cmax of bupropion, while the AUC of threohydrobupropion is approximately 5 times higher than that of bupropion. Peak plasma levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion are reached after about 6 hours following administration of a single dose of bupropion. Plasma levels of erythrohydrobupropion (an isomer of threohydrobupropion, which is also active) are not quantifiable after single dosing with bupropion.
After chronic dosing with bupropion 150mg bid, the Cmax of bupropion is similar to values reported after single dosing. For hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, the Cmax values are higher (about 4 and 7 times respectively) at steady-state than after a single dosing. Plasma levels of erythrohydrobupropion are comparable to steady-state plasma levels of bupropion. Steady-state of bupropion and its metabolites is reached within 5-8 days. The absolute bioavailability of bupropion is not known; excretion data in urine, however, show that at least 87% of the dose of bupropion is absorbed.
Two studies with bupropion SR 150mg tablets in healthy volunteers suggest that exposure to bupropion may be increased when Bupropion tablets are taken with food. When taken following a high fat breakfast, peak plasma concentration of bupropion (Cmax) increased by 11% and 35% in the two studies, while the overall exposure to bupropion (AUC) increased by 16% and 19%.
Bupropion is widely distributed with an apparent volume of distribution of approximately 2000 L.
Bupropion, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion bind moderately to plasma proteins (84%, 77% and 42%, respectively). Bupropion and its active metabolites are excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies show that bupropion and its active metabolites pass the blood-brain barrier and the placenta.
Bupropion is extensively metabolised in humans. Three pharmacologically active metabolites have been identified in plasma: hydroxybupropion and the amino-alcohol isomers, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion. These may have clinical importance, as their plasma concentrations are as high or higher than those of bupropion. The active metabolites are further metabolised to inactive metabolites (some of which have not been fully characterised but may include conjugates) and excreted in the urine.
In vitro studies indicate that bupropion is metabolised to its major active metabolite hydroxybupropion primarily by the CYP2B6, while CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 3A4 and 2E1 are less involved. In contrast, formation of threohydrobupropion involves carbonyl reduction but does not involve cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. (see section 4.5)
The inhibition potential of threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion towards cytochrome P450 has not been studied.
Bupropion and hydroxybupropion are both inhibitors of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme with Ki values of 21 and 13.3μM, respectively (see section 4.5).
Following oral administration of a single 150-mg dose of bupropion, there was no difference in Cmax, half-life, Tmax, AUC, or clearance of bupropion or its major metabolites between smokers and non-smokers.
Bupropion has been shown to induce its own metabolism in animals following sub-chronic administration. In humans, there is no evidence of enzyme induction of bupropion or hydroxybupropion in volunteers or patients receiving recommended doses of bupropion hydrochloride for 10 to 45 days.
Following oral administration of 200mg of 14C-bupropion in humans, 87% and 10% of the radioactive dose were recovered in the urine and faeces, respectively. The fraction of the dose of bupropion excreted unchanged was only 0.5%, a finding consistent with the extensive metabolism of bupropion. Less than 10% of this 14C dose was accounted for in the urine as active metabolites.
The mean apparent clearance following oral administration of bupropion hydrochloride is approximately 200 L/hr and the mean elimination half-life of bupropion is approximately 20 hours.
The elimination half-life of hydroxybupropion is approximately 20 hours. The elimination half-lives for threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion are longer (37 and 33 hours, respectively).
Special Patient Groups:
Patients with renal impairment
The elimination of bupropion and its active major metabolites may be reduced in patients with impaired renal function. Limited data in patients with end-stage renal failure or moderate to severely impaired renal function indicate that exposure to bupropion and/or its metabolites was increased (see section 4.4).
Patients with hepatic impairment
The pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolites were not statistically significantly different in patients with mild to moderate cirrhosis when compared to healthy volunteers, although more variability was observed between individual patients. (see section 4.4) For patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis, the bupropion Cmax and AUC were substantially increased (mean difference approximately 70% and 3-fold, respectively) and more variable when compared to the values in healthy volunteers; the mean half-life was also longer (by approximately 40%). For hydroxybupropion, the mean Cmax was lower (by approximately 70%), the mean AUC tended to be higher (by approximately 30%), the median Tmax was later (by approximately 20 hrs), and the mean half-lives were longer (by approximately 4-fold) than in healthy volunteers. For threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, the mean Cmax tended to be lower (by approximately 30%), the mean AUC tended to be higher (by approximately 50%), the median Tmax was later (by approximately 20 hrs), and the mean half-life was longer (by approximately 2-fold) than in healthy volunteers. (see section 4.3)
Pharmacokinetic studies in the elderly have shown variable results. A single dose study showed that the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites in the elderly do not differ from those in the younger adults. Another pharmacokinetic study, single and multiple dose, has suggested that accumulation of bupropion and its metabolites may occur to a greater extent in the elderly. Clinical experience has not identified differences in tolerability between older and younger patients, but greater sensitivity in older patients cannot be ruled out. (see section 4.4)
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Reproduction toxicity studies conducted in rats at exposures similar to those obtained at the maximum recommended human dose (based on systemic data on exposure) revealed no adverse effects on fertility, pregnancy and foetal development. Reproduction toxicity studies conducted in rabbits treated with doses up to 7 times the maximum recommended human dose based on amg/m2 basis (no systemic data on exposures are available) only revealed a slight increase in skeletal variations (increased incidence of common anatomical variation of an accessory thoracic rib and delayed ossification of phalanges). Moreover at maternally toxic doses, a decrease of rabbits foetal weight was reported.
In animal experiments bupropion doses several times higher than therapeutic doses in humans caused, amongst others, the following dose-related symptoms: ataxia and convulsions in rats, general weakness, trembling and emesis in dogs and increased lethality in both species. Due to enzyme induction in animals but not in humans, systemic exposures in animals were similar to the systemic exposures seen in humans at the maximum recommended dose.
Liver changes are seen in animal studies but these reflect the action of a hepatic enzyme inducer. At recommended doses in humans, bupropion does not induce its own metabolism. This suggests that the hepatic findings in laboratory animals have only limited importance in the evaluation and risk assessment of bupropion.
Genotoxicity data indicate that bupropion is a weak bacterial mutagen, but not a mammalian mutagen, and therefore is of no concern as a human genotoxic agent. Mouse and rat studies confirm the absence of carcinogenicity in these species.
- Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Microcrystalline cellulose, Hypromellose, Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate, Magnesium stearate
Hypromellose, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide , Carnauba wax
Iron oxide black , Hypromellose
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C. Store in the original package.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Cartons containing cold form foil / foil child-resistant blister packs (PA-Alu-PVC / Paper-Alu).
30, 40, 50, 60 or 100 tablets are supplied in each pack. Each blister strip contains 10 tablets. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements for disposal.
- Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
at: Plot. No. 220, Mahagujarat
Industrial Estate, At & Post-Moraiya,
Tal-Sanand, Dist- Ahmedabad Gujarat (India)
Bupropion 150mg extended release tablets USP
Package leaflet: Information for the user
Bupropion 150mg extended release tablets
Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine because it contains important information for you.
- Keep this You may need to read it again.
- If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or
- This medicine has been prescribed for you Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
- If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4
What is in this leaflet
- What Bupropion is and what it is used for
- What you need to know before you take Bupropion
- How to take Bupropion
- Possible side effects
- How to store Bupropion
- Contents of the pack and other information
1. What Bupropion is and what it is used for
Bupropion is a medicine prescribed to help you stop smoking, when you also have motivational support such as taking part in a ‘stop smoking’ programme.
Bupropion will be most effective if you are fully committed to giving up smoking. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice on treatments and other support to help you stop.
2. What you need to know before you take Bupropion
Don’t take Bupropion :
- if you are allergic to bupropion or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6)
if you are taking any other medicines which contain bupropion
- if you have a condition that causes fits (seizures), such as epilepsy, or if you have a history of fits
- if you have an eating disorder or had one in the past (for example, bulimia or anorexia nervosa)
- if you have severe liver problems, such as cirrhosis
if you have a brain tumour
- if you are usually a heavy drinker and you have just stopped drinking alcohol, or are going to stop while you’re taking Bupropion
if you have recently stopped taking sedatives or medicines to treat anxiety (especially
benzodiazepines or similar medicines), or if you are going to stop them while you’re taking Bupropion
- if you have a bipolar disorder (extreme mood swings) as Bupropion could bring on an episode of this illness
- if you are taking medicines for depression or Parkinson’s disease called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or have taken them in the last 14 days. The timing may be shorter for some types of MAOIs, your doctor will advise
If any of these applies to you, talk to your doctor straight away, and don’t take Bupropion .
Warnings and Precautions
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking Bupropion . This is because some conditions make it more likely that you will have side effects (see also section 4).
Children and adolescents
Bupropion is not recommended for people under 18 years.
Bupropion has been shown to cause fits (seizures) in about 1 in 1,000 people. (See also Other medicines and Bupropion later in this section and section 4 Possible side effects, for more information).
Fits are more likely:
if you regularly drink a lot of alcohol
- if you have diabetes for which you use insulin or tablets
- if you have had a serious head injury or a history of head
If any of these applies to you, don’t take Bupropion unless you have agreed with your doctor that there is a strong reason for doing so.
If you have a fit (seizure) during treatment:
Stop taking Bupropion and don’t take any more. See your doctor.
You may have more risk of side effects:
- if you have kidney or liver problems
- if you are aged over
You will need to take a lower dose (see section 3) and be checked closely while you are taking Bupropion .
If you have had any mental health problems…
Some people taking Bupropion have had hallucinations or delusions (seeing, hearing or believing things that are not there), disordered thoughts or extreme mood swings. These effects are more likely in people who have had mental health problems before.
If you feel depressed or suicidal…
Some people become depressed when they try to stop smoking; very occasionally, they may think about committing suicide, or try to do so. These symptoms have affected people taking Bupropion , most often in the first few weeks of treatment.
If you feel depressed or think about suicide:
· Contact your doctor or go to a hospital straight away.
High blood pressure and Bupropion …
Some people taking Bupropion have developed high blood pressure which needs treatment. If you already have high blood pressure, it can become worse. This is more likely if you are also using nicotine patches to help you stop smoking.
You will have your blood pressure checked before you take Bupropion and while you are taking it, especially if you already have high blood pressure. If you are also using nicotine patches, your blood pressure needs to be checked every week. If your blood pressure increases, you may need to stop taking Bupropion .
Other medicines and Bupropion
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines, including medicines you bought without a prescription.
There may be a higher than usual risk of fits if you take:
- medicines for depression or other mental health problems (see also Don’t take Bupropion at the beginning of section 2)
theophylline for asthma or lung disease
- tramadol, a strong painkiller
- medicines against malaria
- stimulants or other medicines to control your weight or appetite
- steroids (except creams and lotions for eye and skin conditions)
- antibiotics called quinolones
- some types of anti-histamines mainly used to treat allergies, that can cause sleepiness
- medicines for diabetes.
If you take any medicines in this list, talk to your doctor straight away, before you take Bupropion (see section 3 under Some people need to take a lower dose).
Some medicines can affect how Bupropion works, or make it more likely that you’ll have side effects. These include:
- medicines for depression (such as desipramine, imipramine, paroxetine) or other mental health problems (such as risperidone, thioridazine)
- medicines for Parkinson’s disease (such as levodopa, amantadine or orphenadrine)
- carbamazepine, phenytoin or valproate, to treat epilepsy or some mental health problems
- some medicines used to treat cancer (such as cyclophosphamide, ifosphamide)
- ticlopidine or clopidogrel, mainly used to treat heart disease or stroke
- some beta blockers (such as metoprolol), mainly used to treat high blood pressure some medicines for irregular heart rhythm (such as propafanone, flecainide)
- ritonavir or efavirenz, for treatment of HIV
If you take any medicines on this list, check with your doctor. Your doctor will weigh up the benefits and risks to you of taking Bupropion , or may decide to change the dose of the other medicine you are taking.
Bupropion may make other medicines less effective:
- If you take tamoxifen used to treat breast cancer
If this applies to you, tell your doctor. It may be necessary to change to another treatment for smoking cessation.
· If you take digoxin for your heart
If this applies to you, tell your doctor. Your doctor may consider adjusting the dose of digoxin.
The dose of some medicines may need to be reduced when you stop smoking
When you smoke, the chemicals absorbed into your body can cause some medicines to be less effective. When you stop smoking, your dose of these medicines may need to be reduced; otherwise, you may get side effects.
If you are taking any other medicines, check with your doctor if you notice any new symptoms that you think may be side effects.
Bupropion with alcohol
Some people find they are more sensitive to alcohol while taking Bupropion . Your doctor may suggest you do not drink alcohol while you’re taking Bupropion , or try to drink as little as possible. If you do drink a lot now, don’t just stop suddenly, because that may put you at risk of having a fit.
Effect on urine tests
Bupropion may interfere with some urine tests to detect other drugs. If you require a urine test, tell your doctor or hospital that you are taking Bupropion .
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Don’t take Bupropion if you are pregnant, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine. Some, but not all studies have reported an increase in the risk of birth defects, particularly heart defects, in babies whose mothers were taking Bupropion . It is not known if these are due to the use of Bupropion .
The ingredients of Bupropion can pass into breast milk. You should ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking Bupropion .
Driving and using machines
Some of the side effects of Bupropion , such as feeling dizzy or light-headed, may affect your concentration and judgement.
If you are affected, don’t drive or operate machinery.
- How to take Bupropion
Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.
|When to start and how much to take
• Start taking Bupropion while you are still smoking
• Set a Target Stop Smoking Day ideally during the second week you’re taking it
Ideally keep smoking while taking Bupropion
|Days 1 to 6||Take one tablet (150mg), once a day|
|Day 7||Increase your dose to one tablet, twice a day, at least 8 hours apart, and not near to bedtime|
|Week 2||Carry on taking one tablet, twice a day.
Stop smoking this week, on your Target Stop Smoking Day.
|Weeks 3 to 9||Carry on taking one tablet, twice a day for up to 9 weeks.
If you have not been able to stop smoking after 7 weeks, your doctor will advise you to stop taking Bupropion .
You may be advised to stop taking Bupropion gradually, after 7 – 9 weeks.
Some people need to take a lower dose
as they may be more likely to get side effects.
- if you are aged over 65
- if you have liver or kidney disease
- if you have a higher risk of fits (see Warnings and Precautions and Other medicines and Bupropion in section 2)
the maximum recommended dose for you is one 150mg tablet once a day.
How to take your tablets
Take your Bupropion tablets at least 8 hours apart. Don’t take Bupropion near to bedtime – it may cause difficulty in sleeping.
You can take Bupropion with or without food.
Swallow your Bupropion tablets whole. Don’t chew them, crush them or split them – if you do, the medicine will be released into your body too quickly. This will make you more likely to have side effects, including fits.
If you take more Bupropion than you should
If you take too many tablets, you may be more likely to have a fit or other side effects.
Don’t delay. Contact your doctor or your nearest hospital emergency department immediately.
If you forget to take Bupropion
If you miss a dose, wait and take your next tablet at the usual time.
Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten dose.
If you stop taking Bupropion
You may need to take Bupropion for as long as 7 weeks to have its full effect.
Don’t stop taking Bupropion without talking to your doctor first. You may need to reduce your dose gradually.
If you have any further questions about using this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
4. Possible side effects
Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them.
Approximately 1 in every 1,000 people taking Bupropion is at risk of having a fit.
Symptoms of a fit include convulsions and usually loss of consciousness. Someone who has had a fit may be confused afterwards and may not remember what has happened.
Fits are more likely if you take too much, if you take some other medicines or if you are at higher than usual risk of fits (see section 2).
If you have a fit, tell your doctor when you have recovered. Don’t take any more Bupropion .
Rarely (up to 1 in 1,000) people may have potentially serious allergic reactions to Bupropion . Signs of allergic reactions include:
- skin rash (including itchy, bumpy rash). Some skin rashes may need hospital treatment, especially if you also have a sore mouth or sore eyes
- unusual wheezing or difficulty in breathing
- swollen eyelids, lips or tongue
- pains in muscles or joints
- collapse or
If you have any signs of an allergic reaction, contact a doctor at once. Don’t take any more tablets.
Very common side effects
These may affect more than one in 10 people:
- difficulty in sleeping (make sure you don’t take Bupropion near to bedtime).
Common side effects
These may affect up to one in 10 people:
- feeling depressed (see also Warnings and Precautions in section 2)
- feeling anxious or agitated
- difficulty concentrating
- feeling shaky (tremor)
- feeling sick (nausea), being sick (vomiting)
- stomach pain or other upsets (such as constipation), changes in the taste of food, dry mouth
- fever, dizziness, sweating, skin rash (sometimes due to an allergic reaction),
Uncommon side effects
These may affect up to one in 100 people:
- ringing in the ears, visual disturbances
- increase in blood pressure (sometimes severe), flushing
- loss of appetite (anorexia)
- feeling weak
- chest pain
- feeling confused
Rare side effects
These may affect up to one in 1,000 people:
- fits (see the beginning of this section)
- twitching, muscle stiffness, uncontrolled movements, problems with walking or coordination
- fainting, feeling faint when you stand up suddenly, because your blood pressure falls
- feeling irritable or hostile; strange dreams (including nightmares)
- loss of memory
- tingling or numbness
- severe allergic reactions; rash together with joint and muscle pains (see the beginning of this section)
- urinating (passing water) more or less than usual
- severe skin rashes that may affect the mouth and other parts of the body and can be life-threatening
- worsening of psoriasis (thickened patches of red skin)
- your skin or the whites of your eyes turning yellow (jaundice), increase in liver enzymes, hepatitis
- changes in blood sugar levels
- feeling unreal or strange (depersonalisation); seeing or hearing things that are not there
Very rare side effects
These may affect up to one in 10,000 people:
- feeling restless, aggressive
- sensing or believing things that are not true (delusions); severe suspiciousness (paranoia).
- urinary incontinence (involuntary urination, leakage of urine)
Other side effects
Other side effects have occurred in a small number of people but their exact frequency is unknown:
- thoughts of harming or killing themselves while taking Bupropion or soon after stopping treatment (see section 2, What you need to know before you take Bupropion ). If you have these thoughts, contact your doctor or go to a hospital straight away.
- loss of contact with reality and unable to think or judge clearly (psychosis); other symptoms may include hallucinations and/or
- reduced number of red blood cells (anaemia), reduced number of white blood cells (leucopenia) and reduced number of platelets (thrombocytopenia).
- blood sodium decreased (hyponatraemia).
Effects of giving up smoking
People who stop smoking are often affected by nicotine withdrawal. This can also affect people taking Bupropion . Signs of nicotine withdrawal include:
- difficulty in sleeping
- tremor or sweating
- feeling anxious, agitated or depressed, sometimes with thoughts of
Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns about how you feel.
Reporting of side effects
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any side effects not listed in this leaflet.
5. How to store Bupropion
Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.
Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the pack. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
Do not store this medicine above 25 °C. Store it in the original package.
Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.
6. Contents of the pack and other information
What Bupropion contains
Each tablet contains 150mg of the active substance, bupropion hydrochloride. The other ingredients are:
Tablet core; microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate, magnesium stearate.
Tablet coating; hypromellose, macrogol 400, titanium dioxide, carnauba wax. Printing ink; hypromellose, iron oxide black.
What Bupropion looks like and contents of the pack
Bupropion 150mg tablets
They are available in cartons containing blisters of 60 tablets.
- Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
at: Plot. No. 220, Mahagujarat
Industrial Estate, At & Post-Moraiya,
Tal-Sanand, Dist- Ahmedabad Gujarat (India)