Buprenorphine Sublingual Tablet 2mg/4mg/8mg Taj Pharma
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is indicated for the treatment of opioid dependence and is preferred for induction. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be used as part of a complete treatment plan to include counseling and psychosocial support.
Under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) codified at 21 U.S.C. 823(g), prescription use of this product in the treatment of opioid dependence is limited to physicians who meet certain qualifying requirements, and who have notified the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) of their intent to prescribe this product for the treatment of opioid dependence and have been assigned a unique identification number that must be included on every prescription.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is administered sublingually as a single daily dose. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet contains no naloxone and is preferred for use only during induction. Following induction, Buprenorphine sublingual film or Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is preferred due to the presence of naloxone when clinical use includes unsupervised administration. The use of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet for unsupervised administration should be limited to those patients who cannot tolerate Buprenorphine sublingual film or Buprenorphine sublingual tablet; for example, those patients who have been shown to be hypersensitive to naloxone.
Medication should be prescribed in consideration of the frequency of visits. Provision of multiple refills is not advised early in treatment or without appropriate patient follow-up visits.
Prior to induction, consideration should be given to the type of opioid dependence (i.e., long- or short-acting opioid), the time since last opioid use, and the degree or level of opioid dependence. To avoid precipitating withdrawal, induction with Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be undertaken when objective and clear signs of withdrawal are evident.
It is recommended that an adequate treatment dose, titrated to clinical effectiveness, should be achieved as rapidly as possible. In a one-month study, patients received 8 mg of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet on Day 1 and 16 mg Buprenorphine sublingual tablet on Day 2. From Day 3 onward, patients received either Buprenorphine sublingual tablet or Buprenorphine sublingual tablet at the same buprenorphine dose as Day 2 based on their assigned treatment.
Induction in the studies of buprenorphine solution was accomplished over 3-4 days, depending on the target dose. In some studies, gradual induction over several days led to a high rate of drop-out of buprenorphine patients during the induction period.
Patients taking heroin or other short-acting opioids:
At treatment initiation, the dose of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be administered at least 4 hours after the patient last used opioids or preferably when moderate objective signs of opioid withdrawal appear.
Patients on methadone or other long-acting opioids:
There is little controlled experience with the transfer of methadone-maintained patients to buprenorphine. Available evidence suggests that withdrawal signs and symptoms are possible during induction onto buprenorphine. Withdrawal appears more likely in patients maintained on higher doses of methadone (>30 mg) and when the first buprenorphine dose is administered shortly after the last methadone dose. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet dosing should be initiated preferably when moderate objective signs of opioid withdrawal appear.
- Buprenorphine is preferred for maintenance treatment.
- Where Buprenorphine is used in maintenance in patients who cannot tolerate the presence of naloxone, the dosage of Buprenorphine should be progressively adjusted in increments / decrements of 2 mg or 4 mg buprenorphine to a level that holds the patient in treatment and suppresses opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms.
- The maintenance dose is generally in the range of 4 mg to 24 mg buprenorphine per day depending on the individual patient. Doses higher than this have not been demonstrated to provide any clinical advantage.
2.3 Method of Administration
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be placed under the tongue until it is dissolved. For doses requiring the use of more than two tablets, patients are advised to either place all the tablets at once or alternatively (if they cannot fit in more than two tablets comfortably), place two tablets at a time under the tongue. Either way, the patients should continue to hold the tablets under the tongue until they dissolve; swallowing the tablets reduces the bioavailability of the drug. To ensure consistency in bioavailability, patients should follow the same manner of dosing with continued use of the product.
Proper administration technique should be demonstrated to the patient.
2.4 Clinical Supervision
Treatment should be initiated with supervised administration, progressing to unsupervised administration as the patient’s clinical stability permits. The use of Buprenorphine for unsupervised administration should be limited to those patients who cannot tolerate Buprenorphine, for example those patients with known hypersensitivity to naloxone. Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine are both subject to diversion and abuse. When determining the size of the prescription quantity for unsupervised administration, consider the patient’s level of stability, the security of his or her home situation, and other factors likely to affect the ability of the patient to manage supplies of take-home medication.
Ideally, patients should be seen at reasonable intervals (e.g., at least weekly during the first month of treatment) based upon the individual circumstances of the patient. Medication should be prescribed in consideration of the frequency of visits. Provision of multiple refills is not advised early in treatment or without appropriate patient follow-up visits. Periodic assessment is necessary to determine compliance with the dosing regimen, effectiveness of the treatment plan, and overall patient progress.
Once a stable dosage has been achieved and patient assessment (e.g., urine drug screening) does not indicate illicit drug use, less frequent follow-up visits may be appropriate. A once-monthly visit schedule may be reasonable for patients on a stable dosage of medication who are making progress toward their treatment objectives. Continuation or modification of pharmacotherapy should be based on the physician’s evaluation of treatmen outcomes and objectives such as:
- Absence of medication toxicity.
- Absence of medical or behavioral adverse effects.
- Responsible handling of medications by the patient.
- Patient’s compliance with all elements of the treatment plan (including recovery-oriented activities, psychotherapy, and/or other psychosocial modalities).
- Abstinence from illicit drug use (including problematic alcohol and/or benzodiazepine use).
If treatment goals are not being achieved, the physician should re-evaluate the appropriateness of continuing the current treatment.
2.5 Unstable Patients
Physicians will need to decide when they cannot appropriately provide further management for particular patients. For example, some patients may be abusing or dependent on various drugs, or unresponsive to psychosocial intervention such that the physician does not feel that he/she has the expertise to manage the patient. In such cases, the physician may want to assess whether to refer the patient to a specialist or more intensive behavioral treatment environment. Decisions should be based on a treatment plan established and agreed upon with the patient at the beginning of treatment.
Patients who continue to misuse, abuse, or divert buprenorphine products or other opioids should be provided with, or referred to, more intensive and structured treatment.
2.6 Stopping Treatment
The decision to discontinue therapy with Buprenorphine or Buprenorphine after a period of maintenance should be made as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Both gradual and abrupt discontinuation of buprenorphine has been used, but the data are insufficient to determine the best method of dose taper at the end of treatment.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is supplied as an uncoated tablet in two dosage strengths:
a. Buprenorphine sublingual Tablet 2mg
Each uncoated contains:
b. Buprenorphine sublingual Tablet 4mg
Each uncoated contains:
c. Buprenorphine sublingual Tablet 8mg
Each uncoated contains:
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should not be administered to patients who have been shown to be hypersensitive to buprenorphine, as serious adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, have been reported. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Abuse Potential
Buprenorphine can be abused in a manner similar to other opioids, legal or illicit. Prescribe and dispense buprenorphine with appropriate precautions to minimize risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion, and ensure appropriate protection from theft, including in the home. Clinical monitoring appropriate to the patient’s level of stability is essential. Multiple refills should not be prescribed early in treatment or without appropriate patient follow-up visits. [see Drug
Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]
5.2 Respiratory Depression
Buprenorphine, particularly when taken by the IV route, in combination with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol), has been associated with significant respiratory depression and death. Many, but not all post-marketing reports regarding coma and death associated with the concomitant use of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines involved misuse by self-injection. Deaths have also been reported in association with concomitant administration of buprenorphine with other depressants such as alcohol or other CNS depressant drugs. Patients should be warned of the potential danger of self-administration of benzodiazepines or other depressants while under treatment with Buprenorphine sublingual tablet. [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]
In the case of overdose, the primary management should be the re-establishment of adequate ventilation with mechanical assistance of respiration, if required. Naloxone may be of value for the management of buprenorphine overdose. Higher than normal doses and repeated administration may be necessary.
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression).
5.3 CNS Depression
Patients receiving buprenorphine in the presence of opioid analgesics, general anesthetics, benzodiazepines, phenothiazines, other tranquilizers, sedative/hypnotics or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) may exhibit increased CNS depression. Consider dose reduction of CNS depressants, Buprenorphine sublingual tablet, or both in situations of concomitant prescription. [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]
5.4 Unintentional Pediatric Exposure
Buprenorphine can cause severe, possibly fatal, respiratory depression in children who are accidentally exposed to it. Store buprenorphine-containing medications safely out of the sight and reach of children and destroy any unused medication appropriately. [see Disposal of Unused Buprenorphine Sublingual Tablet (17.2)]
Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor and chronic administration produces physical dependence of the opioid type, characterized by withdrawal signs and symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation or rapid taper. The withdrawal syndrome is typically milder than seen with full agonists and may be delayed in onset. Buprenorphine can be abused in a manner similar to other opioids. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing buprenorphine in situations when the clinician is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion. [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)]
5.6 Hepatitis, Hepatic Events
Cases of cytolytic hepatitis and hepatitis with jaundice have been observed in individuals receiving buprenorphine in clinical trials and through postmarketing adverse event reports. The spectrum of abnormalities ranges from transient asymptomatic elevations in hepatic transaminases to case reports of death, hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. In many cases, the presence of pre-existing liver enzyme abnormalities, infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus, concomitant usage of other potentially hepatotoxic drugs, and ongoing injecting drug use may have played a causative or contributory role. In other cases, insufficient data were available to determine the etiology of the abnormality.
Withdrawal of buprenorphine has resulted in amelioration of acute hepatitis in some cases; however, in other cases no dose reduction was necessary.
The possibility exists that buprenorphine had a causative or contributory role in the development of the hepatic abnormality in some cases. Liver function tests, prior to initiation of treatment is recommended to establish a baseline. Periodic monitoring of liver function during treatment is also recommended. A biological and etiological evaluation is recommended when a hepatic event is suspected. Depending on the case, Buprenorphine sublingual tablet may need to be carefully discontinued to prevent withdrawal signs and symptoms and a return by the patient to illicit drug use, and strict monitoring of the patient should be initiated.
5.7 Allergic Reactions
Cases of hypersensitivity to buprenorphine products have been reported both in clinical trials and in the post-marketing experience. Cases of bronchospasm, angioneutrotic edema, and anaphylactic shock have been reported. The most common signs and symptoms include rashes, hives, and pruritus. A history of hypersensitivity to buprenorphine is a contraindication to the use of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet.
5.8 Precipitation of Opioid Withdrawal Signs and Symptoms
Because of the partial agonist properties of buprenorphine, Buprenorphine sublingual tablet may precipitate opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms in individuals physically dependent on full opioid agonists if administered sublingually or parenterally before the agonist effects of other opioids have subsided.
5.9 Neonatal Withdrawal
Neonatal withdrawal has been reported in the infants of women treated with buprenorphine during pregnancy. From post-marketing reports, the time to onset of neonatal withdrawal signs and symptoms ranged from Day 1 to Day 8 of life with most cases occurring on Day 1. Adverse events associated with the neonatal withdrawal syndrome included hypertonia, neonatal tremor, neonatal agitation, and myoclonus and there have been reports of convulsions, apnea, respiratory depression and bradycardia.
5.10 Use in Opioid Naïve Patients
There have been reported deaths of opioid naïve individuals who received a 2 mg dose of buprenorphine as a sublingual tablet for analgesia. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is not appropriate as an analgesic.
5.11 Impairment of Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet may impair the mental or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially dangerous tasks such as driving a caror operating machinery, especially during treatment induction and dose adjustment. Patients should be cautioned about driving or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain that buprenorphine therapy does not adversely affect his or her ability to engage in such activities.
5.12 Orthostatic Hypotension
Like other opioids, Buprenorphine sublingual tablet may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients.
5.13 Elevation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Buprenorphine, like other opioids, may elevate cerebrospinal fluid pressure and should be used with caution in patients with head injury, intracranial lesions and other circumstances when cerebrospinal pressure may be increased. Buprenorphine can produce miosis and changes in the level of consciousness that may interfere with patient evaluation.
5.14 Elevation of Intracholedochal Pressure
Buprenorphine has been shown to increase intracholedochal pressure, as do other opioids, and thus should be administered with caution to patients with dysfunction of the biliary tract.
5.15 Effects in Acute Abdominal Conditions
As with other opioids, buprenorphine may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course of patients with acute abdominal conditions.
5.16 General Precautions
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be administered with caution in debilitated patients and those with myxedema or hypothyroidism; adrenal cortical insufficiency (e.g., Addison’s disease); CNS depression or coma; toxic psychoses; prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; acute alcoholism; delirium tremens; or kyphoscoliosis.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
6.1 Adverse Events in Clinical Trials
The safety of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet was supported by clinical trials using Buprenorphine sublingual tablet, Buprenorphine (buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet) and other trials using buprenorphine sublingual solutions. In total, safety data were available from 3214 opioid-dependent subjects exposed to buprenorphine at doses in the range used in treatment of opioid addiction.
Few differences in adverse event profile were noted between Buprenorphine or buprenorphine administered as a sublingual solution.
The following adverse events were reported to occur by at least 5% of patients in a 4-week study (Table 1).
|Table 1. Adverse Events >5% by Body System and Treatment Group in a 4-week study|
|Body System / Adverse Event (COSTART Terminology)||Buprenorphine 16mg/day N=103||Placebo N=107|
|Body as a Whole|
|Asthenia||5 (4.9%)||7 (6.5%)|
|Chills||8 (7.8%)||8 (7.5%)|
|Pain Abdomen||12(11.7%)||7 (6.5%)|
|Pain Back||8 (7.8%)||12(11.2%)|
|Withdrawal Syndrome||19(18.4%)||40 (37.4%)|
|Vasodilation||4 (3.9%)||7 (6.5%)|
|Constipation||8 (7.8%)||3 (2.8%)|
|Vomiting||8 (7.8%)||5 (4.7%)|
|Skin And Appendages|
The adverse event profile of buprenorphine was also characterized in the dose-controlled study of buprenorphine solution, over a range of doses in four months of treatment. Table 2 shows adverse events reported by at least 5% of subjects in any dose group in the dose-controlled study.
|Table 2. Adverse Events (≥ 5%) by Body System and Treatment Group in a 16-week Study|
|Body System /Adverse Event (COSTART Terminology)||Buprenorphine Dose*|
|Very Low* (N=184)||Low* (N=180)||Moderate* (N=186)||High* (N=181)||Total* (N=731)|
|N (%)||N (%)||N (%)||N (%)||N (%)|
|*Sublingual solution. Doses in this table cannot necessarily be delivered in tablet form, but for comparison purposes: “Very low” dose (1 mg solution) would be less than a tablet dose of 2 mg
“Low” dose (4mg solution) approximates a 6 mg tablet dose “Moderate” dose (8mg solution) approximates a 12 mg tablet dose “High” dose (16mg solution) approximates a 24 mg tablet dose
|Body as a Whole|
|Abscess||9 (5%)||2(1%)||3 (2%)||2(1%)||16(2%)|
|Chills||11 (6%)||12(7%)||9 (5%)||10(6%)||42 (6%)|
|Fever||7 (4%)||2(1%)||2(1%)||10(6%)||21 (3%)|
|Flu Syndrome||4 (2%)||13(7%)||19(10%)||8 (4%)||44 (6%)|
|Headache||51 (28%)||62 (34%)||54 (29%)||53 (29%)||220 (30%)|
|Infection||32(17%)||39 (22%)||38 (20%)||40 (22%)||149 (20%)|
|Injury Accidental||5 (3%)||10(6%)||5 (3%)||5 (3%)||25 (3%)|
|Pain||47 (26%)||37(21%)||49 (26%)||44 (24%)||177 (24%)|
|Pain Back||18(10%)||29(16%)||28(15%)||27 (15%)||102(14%)|
|Withdrawal Syndrome||45 (24%)||40 (22%)||41 (22%)||36 (20%)||162(22%)|
|Diarrhea||19(10%)||8 (4%)||9 (5%)||4 (2%)||40 (5%)|
|Dyspepsia||6 (3%)||10(6%)||4 (2%)||4 (2%)||24 (3%)|
|Vomiting||8 (4%)||6 (3%)||10(5%)||14 (8%)||38 (5%)|
|Dizziness||4 (2%)||9 (5%)||7 (4%)||11 (6%)||31 (4%)|
|Insomnia||42 (23%)||50 (28%)||43 (23%)||51 (28%)||186(25%)|
|Nervousness||12 (7%)||11 (6%)||10(5%)||13 (7%)||46 (6%)|
|Somnolence||5 (3%)||13(7%)||9 (5%)||11 (6%)||38 (5%)|
|Cough Increase||5 (3%)||11 (6%)||6 (3%)||4 (2%)||26 (4%)|
|Pharyngitis||6 (3%)||7 (4%)||6 (3%)||9 (5%)||28 (4%)|
|Rhinitis||27(15%)||16(9%)||1 5 (8%)||21 (12%)||79(11%)|
|Skin And Appendages|
|Sweat||23 (13%)||21 (12%)||20(11%)||23(13%)||87(12%)|
|Runny Eyes||13(7%)||9 (5%)||6 (3%)||6 (3%)||34 (5%)|
6.2 Adverse Events – Post-marketing Experience with Buprenorphine Sublingual Tablets
The most frequently reported post-marketing adverse events with Buprenorphine not observed in clinical trials, excluding drug exposure during pregnancy, was drug misuse or abuse.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) Inhibitors and Inducers
Buprenorphine is metabolized to norbuprenorphine primarily by cytochrome CYP3A4; therefore, potential interactions may occur when Buprenorphine sublingual tablet is given concurrently with agents that affect CYP3A4 activity. The concomitant use of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet with CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., azole antifungals such as ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, and HIV protease inhibitors) should be monitored and may require dose-reduction of one or both agents.
The interaction of buprenorphine with many CYP3A4 inducers has not been studied; therefore, it is recommended that patients receiving Buprenorphine sublingual tablet be monitored for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal if inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin,rifampicin) are co-administered. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
Three classes of antiretroviral agents have been evaluated for CYP3A4 interactions with buprenorphine. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) do not appear to induce or inhibit the P450 enzyme pathway, thus no interactions with buprenorphine are expected. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are metabolized principally by CYP3A4. Efavirenz, nevirapine and etravirine are known CYP3A inducers whereas delaviridine is a CYP3A inhibitor. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions between NNRTIs (e.g., efavirenz and delavirdine) and buprenorphine have been shown in clinical studies, but these pharmacokinetic interactions did not result in any significant pharmacodynamic effects. It is recommended that patients who are on chronic buprenorphine treatment have their dose monitored if NNRTIs are added to their treatment regimen. Studies have shown some antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) with CYP3A4 inhibitory activity (nelfinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir) have little effect on buprenorphine pharmacokinetic and no significant pharmacodynamic effects. Other PIs with CYP3A4 inhibitory activity (atazanavir and atazanavir/ritonavir) resulted in elevated levels of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine and patients in one study reported increased sedation. Symptoms of opioid excess have been
found in post-marketing reports of patients receiving buprenorphine and atazanavir with and without ritonavir concomitantly. Monitoring of patients
taking buprenorphine and atazanavir with and without ritonavir is recommended, and dose reduction of buprenorphine may be warranted.
There have been a number of post-marketing reports regarding coma and death associated with the concomitant use of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines. In many, but not all, of these cases, buprenorphine was misused by self-injection. Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of benzodiazepines and buprenorphine altered the usual ceiling effect on buprenorphine-induced respiratory depression, making the respiratory effects of buprenorphine appear similar to those of full opioid agonists. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be prescribed with caution to patients taking benzodiazepines or other drugs that act on the CNS, regardless of whether these drugs are taken on the advice of a physician or are being abused/misused. Patients should be warned that it is extremely dangerous to self-administer non-prescribed benzodiazepines while taking Buprenorphine sublingual tablet, and should also be cautioned to use benzodiazepines concurrently with Buprenorphine sublingual tablet only as directed by their physician.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies Buprenorphine sublingual tablet in pregnant women. Buprenorphine sublingual tablet should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Buprenorphine was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits after IM or subcutaneous (SC) doses up to 5 mg/kg/day (estimated exposure was approximately 3 and 6 times, respectively, the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis), after IV doses up to 0.8 mg/kg/day (estimated exposure was approximately 0.5 times and equal to, respectively, the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis), or after oral doses up to 160 mg/kg/day in rats (estimated exposure was approximately 95 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis) and 25 mg/kg/day in rabbits (estimated exposure was approximately 30 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2
basis). Significant increases in skeletal abnormalities (e.g., extra thoracic vertebra or thoraco-lumbar ribs) were noted in rats after SC administration of 1 mg/kg/day and up (estimated exposure was approximately 0.6 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis), but were not observed at oral doses up to 160 mg/kg/day. Increases in skeletal abnormalities in rabbits after IM administration of 5mg/kg/day (estimated exposure was approximately 6 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis) or oral administration of 1 mg/kg/day or greater (estimated exposure was approximately equal to the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis) were not statistically significant.
In rabbits, buprenorphine produced statistically significant pre-implantation losses at oral doses of 1 mg/kg/day or greater and post-implantation losses that were statistically significant at IV doses of 0.2 mg/kg/day or greater (estimated exposure was approximately 0.3 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m2 basis).
Dystocia was noted in pregnant rats treated intramuscularly with buprenorphine 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m² basis). Fertility, peri- and post-natal development studies with buprenorphine in rats indicated increases in neonatal mortality after oral doses of 0.8 mg/kg/day and up (approximately 0.5 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m² basis), after IM doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and up (approximately 0.3 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m² basis), and after SC doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day and up (approximately 0.06 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m² basis). Delays in the occurrence of righting reflex and startle response were noted in rat pups at an oral dose of 80mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the recommended human daily sublingual dose of 16 mg on a mg/m² basis).
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Buprenorphine passes into breast milk. Breast-feeding is not advised in mothers treated with buprenorphine products.
An apparent lack of milk production during general reproduction studies with buprenorphine in rats caused decreased viability and lactation indices.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet has not been established in pediatric patients.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet, Buprenorphine sublingual film, or Buprenorphine sublingual tablet did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they responded differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine is unknown. Since the drug is extensively metabolized, the plasma levels will be expected to be higher in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, dosage should be adjusted and titrated cautiously.
8.7 Renal Impairment
No differences in buprenorphine pharmacokinetics were observed between 9 dialysis-dependent and 6 normal patients following IV administration of 0.3 mg buprenorphine.
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
9.1 Controlled Substance
Buprenorphine is a Schedule III narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act.
Under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) codified at 21 U.S.C. 823(g), prescription use of this product in the treatment of opioid dependence is limited to physicians who meet certain qualifying requirements, and who have notified the Secretary of Health and Human
Services (HHS) of their intent to prescribe this product for the treatment of opioid dependence and have been assigned a unique identification number that must be included on every prescription.
Buprenorphine, like morphine and other opioids, has the potential for being abused and is subject to criminal diversion. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing buprenorphine in situations when the clinician is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion. Healthcare professionals should contact their state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
Patients who continue to misuse, abuse, or divert, buprenorphine products or other opioids should be provided or referred for more intensive and structured treatment.
Abuse of buprenorphine poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with the abuse of buprenorphine and alcohol and other substances, especially benzodiazepines.
The physician may be able to more easily detect misuse or diversion by maintaining records of medication prescribed including date, dose, quantity, frequency of refills, and renewal requests of medication prescribed.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper handling and storage of the medication are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor and chronic administration produces physical dependence of the opioid type, characterized by moderate withdrawal signs and symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation or rapid taper. The withdrawal syndrome is typically milder than seen with full agonists and may be delayed in onset. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
A neonatal withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the infants of women treated with buprenorphine during pregnancy. [see Warnings and
The manifestations of acute overdose include pinpoint pupils, sedation, hypotension, respiratory depression, and death.
In the event of overdose, the respiratory and cardiac status of the patient should be monitored carefully. When respiratory or cardiac functions are depressed, primary attention should be given to the re-establishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. Oxygen, IV fluids, vasopressors, and other supportive measures should be employed as indicated.
In the case of overdose, the primary management should be the re-establishment of adequate ventilation with mechanical assistance of respiration, if required. Naloxone may be of value for the management of buprenorphine overdose. Higher than normal doses and repeated administration may be necessary. The long duration of action of Buprenorphine should be taken into consideration when determining the length of treatment and medical surveillance needed to reverse the effects of an overdose. Insufficient duration of monitoring may put patients at risk.
Buprenorphine (buprenorphine) sublingual tablet is an uncoated oval white tablet, imprinted with a sword logo on one side and an alphanumeric imprint identifying the product and strength. It contains buprenorphine HCl and is available in two dosage strengths, 2 mg buprenorphine and 8 mg buprenorphine (as free base). Each tablet also contains lactose, mannitol, cornstarch, povidone K30, citric acid, sodium citrate and magnesium stearate.
Chemically, buprenorphine HCl is (2S)-2-[17-Cyclopropylmethyl-4,5α-epoxy-3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-6α,14-ethano-14α-morphinan-7α-yl]-3,3 dimethylbutan-2-ol hydrochloride.
Buprenorphine HCl has the molecular formula C29 H41 NO4 • HCl and the molecular weight is 504.10. It is a white or off-white crystalline powder, sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in methanol, soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in cyclohexane.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Buprenorphine sublingual tablet contains buprenorphine. Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor and an antagonist at the kappa-opioid receptor.
Comparisons of buprenorphine to full opioid agonists such as methadone and hydromorphone suggest that sublingual buprenorphine produces typical opioid agonist effects which are limited by a ceiling effect.
Opioid agonist ceiling-effects were also observed in a double-blind, parallel group, dose-ranging comparison of single doses of buprenorphine sublingual solution (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg), placebo and a full agonist control at various doses. The treatments were given in ascending dose order at intervals of at least one week to 16 opioid-experienced subjects who were not physically dependent. Both active drugs produced typical opioid agonist effects. For all measures for which the drugs produced an effect, buprenorphine produced a dose-related response. However, in each case, there was a dose that produced no further effect. In contrast, the highest dose of the full agonist control always produced the greatest effects. Agonist objective rating scores remained elevated for the higher doses of buprenorphine (8-32 mg) longer than for the lower doses and did not return to baseline until 48 hours after drug administration. The onset of effects appeared more rapidly with buprenorphine than with the full agonist control, with most doses nearing peak effect after 100 minutes for buprenorphine compared to 150 minutes for the full agonist control.
Buprenorphine in IV (2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mg) and sublingual (12 mg) doses has been administered to opioid-experienced subjects who were not physically dependent to examine cardiovascular, respiratory and subjective effects at doses comparable to those used for treatment of opioid dependence. Compared to placebo, there were no statistically significant differences among any of the treatment conditions for blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, O2 saturation, or skin temperature across time. Systolic BP was higher in the 8 mg group than placebo (3-hour AUC values).
Minimum and maximum effects were similar across all treatments. Subjects remained responsive to low voice and responded to computer prompts.
Some subjects showed irritability, but no other changes were observed.
The respiratory effects of sublingual buprenorphine were compared with the effects of methadone in a double-blind, parallel group, dose ranging comparison of single doses of buprenorphine sublingual solution (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg) and oral methadone (15, 30, 45, or 60 mg) in non-dependent, opioid-experienced volunteers. In this study, hypoventilation not requiring medical intervention was reported more frequently after buprenorphine doses of 4 mg and higher than after methadone. Both drugs decreased O2 saturation to the same degree.
Plasma levels of buprenorphine increased with the sublingual dose of Buprenorphine sublingual tablet (Table 3). There was wide inter-patient variability in
the sublingual absorption of buprenorphine, but within subjects the variability was low. Both Cmax and AUC of buprenorphine increased in a linear fashion with the increase in dose (in the range of 4 to 16 mg), although the increase was not directly dose-proportional.
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