Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate Tablets 5mg/5mg Taj Pharma

  1. Name of the Medicinal Product

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate Tablets 5mg/5mg Taj Pharma

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Each film coated tablet contains:
Bisoprolol Fumarate USP                      5mg
Amlodipine Besylate USP
Equivalent to Amlodipine base              5mg
Excipients                                               q.s.
Colour: Titanium Dioxide USP

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

  1. Pharmaceutical Form

Film-coated tablet.

White or almost white, odourless, oblong, slightly convex tablets.

  1. Clinical Particulars

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is indicated for the treatment of hypertension as substitution therapy in patients adequately controlled with the individual products given concurrently at the same doses level as in the combination, but as separate tablets.

4.2    Posology and method of administration

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is indicated in patients whose blood pressure is adequately controlled with separately administered monocomponent preparations of the same doses as the recommended fixed dose combination.

Posology

Recommended daily dose is one tablet of the given strength.

Treatment must not be abruptly discontinued, as it may lead to temporary deterioration of clinical condition. Treatment must not be abruptly discontinued especially in case of patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease. Gradual decrease of the dose is recommended. Patients with hepatic impairment

In case of hepatic impairment elimination of amlodipine may be elongated. Exact dosage recommendations concerning amlodipine have not been established, but the drug should therefore be administered with special caution in these patients (see section 4.4).

In case of severe hepatic impairment the daily dose of bisoprolol must not exceed 10 mg.

Patients with renal impairment

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.

Amlodipine is not dialyzable. Amlodipine should be administered with particular caution to patients undergoing dialysis (see section 4.4).

In case of severe renal impairment (creatinin clearance < 20 ml/min) the daily dose of bisoprolol must not exceed 10 mg.

Elderly patients

The usual doses can be administered to elderly people; however, caution is advised when the dose is increased (see section 5.2).

Paediatric population:

The safety and efficacy of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate should be taken in the morning with or without food, without chewing it.

4.3    Contraindications

In connection with amlodipine:

  • severe hypotension
  • shock (including cardiogenic shock)
  • obstruction of the outflow tract of the left ventricle (e.g. high grade aortic stenosis)
  • haemodynamically unstable heart failure after acute myocardial infarction

In connection with bisoprolol:

  • Acute heart failure or during episodes of heart failure requiring i.v. inotropic therapy
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Second or third degree AV block (without a pacemaker)
  • Sick sinus syndrome
  • Sinoatrial block
  • Bradycardia (heart rate less than 60 beats/min) prior to start of therapy
  • Hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 100mmHg)
  • Severe bronchial asthma or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Severe forms of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and severe forms of Raynaud’s syndrome
  • Untreated phaeochromocytoma (see section 4.4)
  • Metabolic acidosis

In connection with Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate:

  • Hypersensitivity to amlodipine, dihydropyridine derivates, bisoprolol and/or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4    Special warnings and precautions for use

In connection with amlodipine:

The safety and efficacy of amlodipine in hypertensive crisis has not been established. Patients with cardiac failure

Patients with heart failure should be treated with caution. In a long-term, placebo controlled study in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class III and IV) the reported incidence of pulmonary oedema was higher in the amlodipine treated group than in the placebo group, but this was not associated with worsening of the heart failure.

Use in patients with impaired hepatic function

The half-life of amlodipine is prolonged in patients with impaired liver function; dosage recommendations have not been established. Amlodipine should therefore be administered with caution in these patients.

Use in elderly patients

In the elderly increase of the dosage should take place with care (see section 5.2).

Use in renal failure

Amlodipine may be used in such patients at normal doses. Changes in amlodipine plasma concentrations are not correlated with degree of renal impairment. Amlodipine is not dialyzable.

In connection with bisoprolol:

Especially in case of patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease the cessation of therapy with bisoprolol must not be done abruptly unless clearly indicated, as it may lead to temporary deterioration of heart disease (see section 4.2).

Bisoprolol should be administered with special caution in patients with hypertension or angina associated with heart failure.

Bisoprolol must be used with caution in:

  • Diabetes mellitus with large fluctuations in blood glucose values; symptoms of hypoglycaemia (e.g. tachycardia, palpitations or sweating) can be masked.
  • Strict fasting/diet.
  • Concomitant desensitisation therapy. As with other beta-blockers, bisoprolol may increase both the sensitivity towards allergens and the severity of anaphylactic reactions. Adrenaline treatment may not always give the expected therapeutic effect.
  • First degree AV block.
  • Prinzmetal’s angina.
  • Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (intensification of complaints might happen especially during the start of therapy),
  • Patients with psoriasis or with a history of psoriasis should only be given beta-blockers (e.g. bisoprolol) after carefully balancing the benefits against the risks.
  • Under treatment with bisoprolol the symptoms of hyperthyreosis may be masked.
  • In patients with phaeochromocytoma bisoprolol must not be administered until after alpha-receptor blockade.
  • In patients undergoing general anaesthesia beta-blockade reduces the incidence of arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia during induction of anaesthesia and intubation, and the post-operative period. It is currently recommended that maintenance beta-blockade be continued perioperatively. The anaesthetist must be aware of beta-blockade because of the potential for interactions with other drugs, resulting in bradyarrhythmias, attenuation of the reflex tachycardia and the decreased reflex ability to compensate for blood loss.

If it is thought necessary to withdraw beta-blocker therapy before surgery, this should be done gradually and completed about 48 hours before anaesthesia.

  • In bronchial asthma or other chronic obstructive lung diseases, which may cause symptoms, bronchodilating therapy should be given concomitantly. Occasionally an increase of the airway resistance may occur in patients with asthma, therefore the dose of β2-stimulants may have to be increased.

4.5    Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

In connection with amlodipine:

  • It has been safely administered with thiazide diuretics, β-blockers, long-acting nitrates, sublingual glyceryl trinitrate preparations, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, oral hypoglycaemic drugs.

Effects of other medicinal products on amlodipine

  • CYP3A4 inhibitors: Concomitant use of amlodipine with strong or moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g. protease inhibitors, azole antifungals, macrolides like erythromycin or clarithromycin, verapamil or diltiazem) can be expected to increase the plasma concentrations of amlodipine to a clinically relevant extent.
  • CYP3A4 inducers: There is no data available regarding the effect of CYP3A4 inducers on amlodipine. The concomitant use of CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. rifampicin, St. John´s wort (Hypericum perforatum) may give a lower plasma concentration of amlodipine. Amlodipine should be used with caution together with CYP3A4 inducers.

In clinical interaction studies grapefruit juice, cimetidine, aluminium/ magnesium (antacid) and sildenafil did not affect the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Effects of amlodipine on other medicinal products

The blood pressure lowering effects of amlodipine adds to the blood pressure-lowering effects of other antihypertensive agents.

In clinical interaction studies, amlodipine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, digoxin, ethanol (alcohol), warfarin or cyclosporin.

Simvastatin: Combination with amlodipine may lead to an increase in simvastatin plasma level.

Simvastatin doses of more than 20 mg daily are not recommended in patients treated with amlodipine.

There is no effect of amlodipine on laboratory parameters.

In connection with bisoprolol:

Combinations not recommended:

  • Calcium antagonists of verapamil type and to a lesser extent of diltiazem type: Negative influence on contractility, atrio-ventricular conduction and blood pressure. Intravenous administration of verapamil in patients on β-blocker treatment may lead to profound hypotension and atrioventricular block.
  • Centrally acting antihypertensive drugs such as clonidine, methyldopa, moxonodine, rilmenidine: Concomitant use of centrally acting antihypertensive drugs may lead to reduction of heart rate and cardiac output and vasodilation. Abrupt withdrawal of the drug may increase the risk of “rebound hypertension”.

Combinations to be used with special caution:

  • Calcium antagonists of the dihydropyridine type such as nifedipine: Concomitant use may increase the risk of hypotension, and an increase in the risk of a further deterioration of the ventricular pump function in patients with heart failure cannot be excluded.
  • Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g. disopyramide, quinidine, lidocaine, phenytoin, flecainide, propafenone): Effect on atrio-ventricular conduction time and negative inotropic effect may be potentiated.
  • Class III antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g. amiodarone): Effect on atrio-ventricular conduction time may be potentiated.
  • Parasympathomimetic drugs: Concomitant use may increase atrio-ventricular conduction time and thus the risk of bradycardia.
  • Topical beta-blocker containing preparations (e.g. eye drops for glaucoma treatment) may add to the systemic effects of bisoprolol.
  • Insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs: Intensification of blood sugar lowering effect. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors may mask symptoms of hypoglycaemia.
  • Anaesthetic agents: Attenuation of the reflex tachycardia and increase of the risk of hypotension (for further information on general anaesthesia see section 4.4).
  • Digitalis glycosides: Reduction of heart rate, increase of atrio-ventricular conduction time.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs may reduce the hypotensive effect of bisoprolol.
  • Beta-sympathomimetic agents (e.g. isoprenaline, dobutamine): Combination with bisoprolol may reduce the effect of both agents.
  • Sympathomimetics that activate both beta- and alpha-adrenoceptors (e.g. norepinephrine, epinephrine): Combination with bisoprolol may unmask the alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstrictor effects of these agents leading to blood pressure increase. Such interactions are considered to be more likely with nonselective beta-blockers.
  • Concomitant use with antihypertensive agents as well as with other drugs with blood pressure lowering potential (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, phenothiazines) may increase the risk of hypotension.

Combinations to be considered:

  • Mefloquine: increased risk of bradycardia.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (except MAO-B inhibitors): Enhanced hypotensive effect of the beta-blockers but also risk for hypertensive crisis.
  • Rifampicin: Slight reduction of the half-life of bisoprolol possible due to the induction of hepatic drugmetabolising enzymes. Normally no dosage adjustment is necessary.
  • Ergotamine derivatives: Exacerbation of peripheral circulatory disturbances.

4.6    Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

Bisoprolol has pharmacological effects that may cause harmful effects on pregnancy and/or the foetus/newborn. In general, β-adrenoceptor blockers reduce placental perfusion, which has been associated with growth retardation, intrauterine death, spontaneous abortion and early labour. Adverse effects (e.g. hypoglycaemia and bradycardia) may occur in the foetus and newborn infant. If treatment with β-adrenoceptor blockers is necessary, β1-selective adrenoceptor blockers are preferable.

The safety of amlodipine in human pregnancy has not been established.

Reproductive studies in rats have shown no toxicity except for delayed date of delivery and prolonged duration of labour at dosages 50 times greater than the maximum recommended dosage for humans.

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is not recommended during pregnancy unless clearly necessary. If treatment with Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is considered necessary, the uteroplacental blood flow and the foetal growth should be closely monitored. In case of harmful effects on pregnancy or the foetus alternative treatment should be considered. The newborn infant must be closely monitored. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia and bradycardia are generally to be expected within the first 3 days.

Breast-feeding:

It is not known whether bisoprolol or amlodipine is excreted in human milk. Therefore, administration of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is not recommended during breast-feeding.

Fertility

No human data on fertility are known for the combination product. Reversible biochemical changes in spermatozoa have been reported in some patients treated by calcium channel blockers, however clinical data are insufficient regarding the potential effect of amlodipine on fertility.

Bisoprolol had no influence on fertility or on general reproduction performance in animal studies, while amlodipine showed in a published investigation adverse effects on male fertility parameters (see section 5.3).

4.7    Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Amlodipine can have minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. If patients taking amlodipine suffer from dizziness, headache, fatigue or nausea the ability to react may be impaired. In a study with coronary heart disease patients, bisoprolol did not impair driving performance. However, depending on the individual patients response to treatment an effect on the ability to drive a vehicle or to use machines cannot be excluded.

This may occur mostly at the beginning of therapy, during changing therapy and during concomitant alcohol intake.

4.8    Undesirable effects

The undesirable effects observed in the course of using active ingredients separately are to be given according to the following frequency grouping:

Very common (  1/10)

Common (  1/100 to <1/10)

Uncommon (  1/1,000 to <1/100)

Rare (  1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Frequency not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

In connection with amlodipine

During placebo-controlled studies with patients suffering of hypertension and angina pectoris, most frequently reported adverse effects were as follows: headache, oedemas (especially ankle oedema), increased fatigue, somnolence, nausea, abdominal pain, flush, palpitation and dizziness.

In these clinical trials clinically significant laboratory abnormalities in relation with amlodipine have not been observed.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare                    Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Very rare                    Allergic reactions

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Very rare:           Hyperglycaemia Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon:              Insomnia, mood changes (including anxiety), depression

Rare:                             Confusion

Nervous system disorders

Common:                   Headache, dizziness, somnolence (especially at the beginning of the treatment)

Uncommon:              Syncope, hypaesthesia, paraesthesia, dysgeusia, tremor

Very rare:                   Hypertonia, peripheral neuropathy

Eye disorders

Uncommon:              Visual disturbances (including diplopia)

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon:              Tinnitus

Cardiac disorders

Common:                   Palpitation

Very rare:                   Myocardial infarction, arrhythmia (including bradycardia,ventricular tachycardia

and atrial fibrillation)

Vascular disorders:

Common:                   Flush

Uncommon:              Hypotension

Very rare:                   Vasculitis

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:              Dyspnoe, rhinitis

Very rare:                   Cough

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:                   Nausea, abdominal pain

Uncommon:                Vomiting, dyspepsia, altered bowel habits (including diarrhoea and constipation),

dry mouth

Very rare:                   Gastritis, gingival hyperplasia, pancreatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Very rare:                   Hepatitis*, jaundice*

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:              Alopecia, purpura, skin discolouration, hyperhydrosis, pruritus, rash, exanthema

Very rare:                   Angioedema, erythema multiforme, urticaria, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-

Johnson syndrome, Quincke oedema, photosensitivity

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common:                   Ankle swelling

Uncommon:              Arthralgia, myalgia, muscle cramps, back pain

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon:              Pollakisuria, micturition disorder, nycturia

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Uncommon:              Impotence, gynecomastia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common:                   Oedema, fatigue

Uncommon:              Chest pain, asthenia, pain, malaise

Investigations

Uncommon:              Weight increase, weight decrease

Very rare:                   Elevated liver enzymes*

*In most cases with cholestasis

Exceptional cases of extrapyramidal syndrome have been reported.

In connection with bisoprolol

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Rare:                             Elevated triglyceride level

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon:              Depression

Rare:                             Nightmares, hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

Common:                   Dizziness**, headache**

Uncommon:              Sleep disorders

Rare:                             Syncope

Eye disorders

Rare:                              Decreased tear secretion (it must be taken into consideration if the patient wears

contact lenses)

Very rare:                   Conjunctivitis

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Rare:                             Hearing impairments

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon:              AV-conduction disorders, deterioration of preexisting heart failure, bradycardia

Vascular disorders

Common:                   Feeling of coldness and numbness in the extremities

Uncommon:              Hypotension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:              Bronchospasm in patients with bronchial asthma or a history of obstructive pulmonary disease

Rare:                             Allergic rhinitis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:                   Gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation

Hepatobiliary disorders

Rare:                             Hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rare:                             Hypersensitivity reactions such as pruritus, flush, rash

Very rare:                   Alopecia. Beta-blockers can provoke or aggravate psoriasis or may cause

psoriasis like skin disorder

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Uncommon:              Muscle weakness and cramps

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Rare:                             Impotence

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common:                   Tiredness**

Uncommon:              Exhaustion**

Investigations Rare:

Increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT)

**These symptoms especially occur at the beginning of the therapy. They are generally mild and often disappear within 1-2 weeks.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

4.9    Overdose

In connection with amlodipine:

In humans experience with intentional overdose is limited.

Symptoms

Available data suggest that gross overdosage could result in excessive peripheral vasodilatation and possibly reflex tachycardia. Marked and probably prolonged systemic hypotension up to and including shock with fatal outcome have been reported.

Treatment

Clinically significant hypotension due to amlodipine overdosage calls for active cardiovascular support including frequent monitoring of cardiac and respiratory function, elevation of extremities and attention to circulating fluid volume and urine output.

A vasoconstrictor may be helpful in restoring vascular tone and blood pressure, provided that there is no contraindication to its use. Intravenous calcium gluconate may be beneficial in reversing the effects of calcium channel blockade.

Gastric lavage may be worthwhile in some cases. In healthy volunteers the use of charcoal up to 2 hours after administration of amlodipine 10 mg has been shown to reduce the absorption rate of amlodipine.

Since amlodipine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is not likely to be of benefit.

In connection with bisoprolol:

Symptoms

The most common signs expected with overdosage of a β-blocker are bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, acute cardiac insufficiency and hypoglycaemia. To date a few cases of overdose with bisoprolol in hypertensive and/or ischemic heart disease patients have been reported: Bradycardia and/or hypotension were noted. All patients recovered. There is a wide interindividual variation in sensitivity and in reactions to one single high dose of bisoprolol, patients with heart disease are obviously more sensitive to the effects of bisoprolol.

Treatment:

In general, if overdose occurs, bisoprolol treatment should be stopped and supportive and symptomatic treatment should be provided. Limited data suggest that bisoprolol is hardly dialysable.

Based on the expected pharmacological actions and recommendations for other β-blockers, the following general measures should be considered when clinically warranted.

Bradycardia: Administer intravenous atropine. If the response is inadequate, isoprenaline or another agent with positive chronotropic properties may be given cautiously. Under some circumstances, transvenous pacemaker insertion may be necessary.

Hypotension: Intravenous fluids and vasopressors should be administered. Intravenous glucagon may be useful.

AV block (second or third degree): Patients should be carefully monitored and treated with isoprenaline infusion or cardiac pacemaker insertion.

Acute worsening of heart failure: I.v. diuretics, positive inotropic agents, vasodilating agents should be administered.

Bronchospasm: Bronchodilator therapy such as isoprenaline, β2-sympathomimetic drugs and/or aminophylline should be administered.

Hypoglycaemia: I.v. glucose should be administered.

  1. Pharmacological Properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Beta blocking agents, selective, and other antihypertensives.

Mechanism of action of amlodipine:

Amlodipine inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle (slow channel blocker or calcium ion antagonist).

The mechanism of its antihypertensive action is due to a direct relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle causing reduction in peripheral vascular resistance.

The precise mechanism by which it relieves angina has not been fully determined, it may have the following two actions:

1) It dilates peripheral arterioles and thus, reduces the total peripheral resistance (afterload).

Since it does not cause reflex tachycardia, myocardial energy consumption and oxygen requirement will be reduced.

  • By means of dilatation of the main coronary arteries and coronary arterioles, both in normal and ischaemic regions it improves oxygen supply. By the above mechanism it increases myocardial oxygen delivery even in case of coronary artery spasm (Prinzmetal’s or variant angina).

Pharmacodynamic effects

In patients with hypertension, once daily dosing provides clinically significant reductions of blood pressure in both the supine and standing positions throughout the 24-hour interval. Due to the slow onset of action, acute hypotension is not a feature of its administration.

In patients with angina, by once daily administration it increases total exercise time, time to angina onset, and time to significant ST segment depression, and decreases both angina attack frequency and glyceryl trinitrate tablets consumption.

It has not been associated with any adverse metabolic effects: it had no effect on the level of plasma lipids, blood sugar and serum uric acid and it was suitable for use in patients with asthma.

Mechanism of action of bisoprolol:

Bisoprolol is a potent, highly β1-selective adrenoreceptor-blocking agent devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) and without relevant membrane stabilising activity.

It only shows low affinity to the β2-receptor of the smooth muscles of bronchi and vessels as well as to the β2-receptors concerned with metabolic regulation. Therefore, bisoprolol is generally not to be expected to influence the airway resistance and β2-mediated metabolic effects. Its β1-selectivity extends beyond the therapeutic dose range. Bisoprolol has no explicit negative inotropic effect. Bisoprolol has its maximal effect 3-4 hours after oral administration.

The plasma elimination half-life (10-12 hours) provides 24 hours efficacy following a once daily dosage.

It usually exerts its maximal antihypertensive effect after 2 weeks.

In acute administration in patients with coronary heart disease without chronic heart failure bisoprolol reduces the heart rate and stroke volume and thus the cardiac output and oxygen consumption. In chronic administration the initially elevated peripheral resistance decreases. Antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers is among others due to decrease of renin activity.

Pharmacodynamic effect of the combination product

This combination allows of increase the antihypertensive and anti-anginal efficacy by complementary mechanism of actions of the two active compounds: vasoselective effect of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (decrease of peripheral resistance) and cardioselective beta-blocker bisoprolol (decrease of cardiac output).

5.2     Pharmacokinetic properties

Amlodipine:

Absorption:

After oral administration, amlodipine is well absorbed with peak blood levels between 6-12 hours post dose. Its bioavailability is unaffected by food ingestion. Absolute bioavailability has been estimated to be between 64 and 80%.

Distribution:

The volume of distribution is 21 l/kg. Steady state plasma concentration (5-15 ng/ml) is reached after 7-8 days of consecutive daily dosing. In vitro studies have shown that 93-98% of circulating amlodipine is bound to plasma proteins.

Biotransformation and elimination:

Amlodipine is extensively metabolised (approx. 90%) by the liver to inactive pyridine derivates. 10% of the parent compound and 60% of inactive metabolites excreted in the urine, 20-25 % with faeces. Decrease of plasma concentration shows biphasic characteristics. The terminal plasma elimination half-life is about 35-50 hours and is consistent with once daily dosing.

Total clearance is 7ml/min/kg (in case of 60 kg-patient: 25 litre/hour). In elderly patients this value is 19 litre/hour.

Use in Elderly

The time to reach peak plasma concentrations of amlodipine is similar in elderly and younger subjects. Amlodipine clearance tends to be decreased with resulting increases in AUC and elimination half-life in elderly patients. Increases in AUC and elimination half-life in patients with congestive heart failure were as expected for the patient age group study (see section 4.4).

Patients with impaired renal function

Amlodipine is extensively metabolized into inactive metabolites. 10% of the parent compound is excreted unchanged in the urine. The changes in the plasma concentration of amlodipine are not related to the degree of renal impairment. These patients can be treated with a normal dosage of amlodipine. Amlodipine is not dialyzable.

Patients with impaired hepatic function

The half-life of amlodipine is prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function.

Bisoprolol:

Absorption:

Bisoprolol is absorbed almost completely (> 90%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the very small first pass effect (approx. 10%), its absolute bioavailability is approximately 90% after oral administration.

Distribution:

Its distribution volume is 3.5 l/kg. The plasma protein binding of bisoprolol is about 30%.

Biotransformation and elimination:

Bisoprolol is excreted from the body by two routes. 50% is metabolised by the liver to inactive metabolites, which are then excreted by the kidneys. The remaining 50% is excreted by the kidneys in un unmetabolised form. Since the elimination takes place in the kidneys and the liver to the same extent a dosage adjustment is not required for patients with mild to moderate liver function impairment or renal insufficiency. Total clearance is approximately 15 l/h. The elimination half-life in plasma is 10-12 hours.

The kinetics of bisoprolol are linear and independent of age.

Combination product

There has not been conducted any pharmacokinetic interaction study between the two compounds. Even if such interaction exist, – according to the results of bioequivalence study – the extent of this hypothetic interaction must be the same in case of taking Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate, than in case of taking the two compounds separately at the same dose levels as in the combination.

5.3    Preclinical safety data

In connection with amlodipine:

Carcinogenesis:

Rats and mice treated with amlodipine maleate in the diet for up to two years, at concentrations calculated to provide daily dosage levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 amlodipine mg/kg/day, showed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of the drug. For the mouse, the highest dose was, on a mg/m2 basis, similar to the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg amlodipine/day. For the rat, the highest dose was, on a mg/m2 basis, about twice the maximum recommended human dose.

Mutagenesis:

Mutagenicity studies conducted with amlodipine maleate revealed no drug related effects at either the gene or chromosome level.

Fertility:

Standard fertility investigation revealed no effect on the fertility of rats treatedwith amlodipine maleate (males for 64 days and females for 14 days prior to mating) at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day amlodipine (8 times the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis). However, in a published investigation in which male rats were treated with amlodipine besilate for 30 days at a dose comparable with the human dose based on mg/kg, decreased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone were found as well as decreases in sperm density and in the number of mature spermatids and Sertoli cells.

In connection with bisoprolol:

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, toxicity to reproduction. During reproduction toxicology tests bisoprolol had no influence on fertility or general reproduction ability.

Like other beta-blockers, bisoprolol caused maternal (decreased food intake and decreased body weight increase) and embryo/fetal toxicity (increased incidence of resorptions, reduced birth weight of the offspring, retarded physical development) but was not teratogenic.

  1. Pharmaceutical Particulars

6.1 List of excipients

Silica, colloidal anhydrous, Magnesium stearate, Sodium starch glycolate, Cellulose, microcrystalline.

6.2    Incompatibilities

Not applicable. 6.3     

Shelf life

36 months

6.4     Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 30 C. Store in the original container in order to protect from light.

6.5    Nature and contents of container

Tablets are packed in OPA/Al/PVC//Al blister and carton box.

Pack Size: 7, 14, 28, 30, 50,90, 100 and 500 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6    Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements.

7. Manufactured In India By:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.
Mumbai, India
Unit No. 214.Old Bake House,
Maharashtra chambers of  Commerce Lane,
Fort, Mumbai – 400001
at:Gujarat, INDIA.
Customer Service and Product Inquiries:
1-800-TRY-FIRST (1-800-222-434 & 1-800-222-825)
Monday through Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. EST
E-mail: tajgroup@tajpharma.com

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate Tablets 5mg/5mg Taj Pharma
(Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate)

Package leaflet: Information for the user

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.

  • Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
  • If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
  • This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
  • If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.

What is in this leaflet:

  1. What Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is and what it is used for
  2. What you need to know beforeyou take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate
  3. How to take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate
  4. Possible side effects
  5. How to store Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate
  6. Contents of the pack and other information

 

  1. What Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is and what it is used for

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is indicated for the treatment of high blood pressure as substitution therapy in patients who are adequately controlled with the individual products given concurrently at the same doses level as in the combination, but as separate tablets.

  1. What you need to know before you take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Do not take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

  • If you are allergic to amlodipine, bisoprolol (active substances), dihydropyridinederivates or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6);
  • If you have serious narrowing of the outflow tract of the left ventricle (e.g. high grade aortic stenosis);
  • If you suffer from acute heart failure, unstable heart failure after acute myocardial infarction or heart failure requiring intravenous drugs to increase strength of myocardial contraction;
  • If you suffer from shock due to abnormal function of heart (in such cases blood pressure is extremly low and circulation is close to collapse);
  • If you suffer from heart disease characterized by very slow heart beat or irregular heart contraction (2nd or 3rd degree atrioventricular block, sinoatrial block, sick sinus syndrome);
  • In case of extremly low blood pressure (first value is permanently less than 100 mmHg);
  • In case of severe bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • In case of serious peripheral arterial disease;
  • In case of Raynaud syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, buzz and decoloration of fingers on hands and feet exposed to cold.
  • In case of untreated pheocromocytoma, which is a rare tumour of adrenal glands’ marrow;
  • In such metabolic conditions where pH of blood becomes acidic

If you think you suffer from any of the above mentioned diseases, ask your doctor whether you can take the preparation.

Warnings and precautions

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate can be administered with special care in the following conditions, therefore inform your doctor if any of the following conditions applies to you:

  • Elderly age;
  • Heart failure;
  • Diabetes with highly variable blood sugar levels;
  • Strict diet;
  • Concomittant antiallergic (desensitizing) treatment (e.g. in order to prevent allergic rhinitis);
  • Mild disorder of electronic regulatory system of heart rhythm (first degree AV-block);
  • Coronary perfusion disorder (Prinzmetal’s angina)
  • Vascular disease of extremities characterized by decreased perfusion;
  • Psoriasis;
  • Hyperthyreosis;
  • Hepatic or renal disease;
  • In case of treated pheocromocytoma, which is a rare tumour of adrenal glands’ marrow;
  • Bronchial asthma or other chronic obstructive lung disease;
  • If you are going to have an operation inform your anaesthetist, that you are taking Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate.

Your doctor may feel it necessary to take special measures (e.g. additional treatment), if any of the above conditions exists.

Children and adolescents

Do not give this medicine to children or adolescents below the age of 18, because its benefits and risks have not been tested in these age groups.

Other medicines and Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Therapeutic and side effects of this medicine may be biased by other medicines being concomitantly taken.

Interactions can arise, even if other medicine has been taken within just short time.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines.

The coadministration of the following medicines with Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is not recommended:

Verapamil- and diltiazem type calcium channel blockers: These drugs are used for the treatment of high blood pressure and chronic stable angina pectoris.

Centrally acting antihypertensives (e.g.: clonidine, methyldopa, moxonodine, rilmenidine): Do not stop taking these drugs before consulting your doctor.

The following drugs may only be coadministered with Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate in certain circumstances with special caution under medical supervision:

Certain heart rhythm regulator preparations (quinidine, disopyramide, lidocaine, phenytoin, flecainide, propaphenon, amiodarone). These drugs are used for the treatment of irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.

Topically applied beta-blocker preparations (e.g. eye-drops used to treat glaucoma).

Parasympathomimetics. These drugs are used to potentiate function of smooth muscle in diseases of stomach, intestinum, bladder and in glaucoma.

Insulin and oral antidiabetics. Hypnotics, anaesthetic agents.

Heart glycosides (digitalis), drugs used to treat heart failure.

Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs may be given for the treatment of joint inflammation, pain or arthritis.

Sympathomimetics (e.g. isoprenalin, dobutamine, norepinephrine, epinephrin). These drugs are used for the treatment of serious circulation disorders in case of emergence.

Any drugs lowering blood pressure due to therapeutic or adverse effect (e.g. antihypertensive medicines, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, phenothiazines).

Simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering medicine.

Possible effects of a coadministration of the following medicines with Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate need to be considered by your doctor:

Mefloquine, used to prevent or treat malaria.

Monoamino-oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (except MAO-B inhibitors) used to treat depression.

Drugs affecting metabolism of amlodipine or bisoprolol (e.g. rifampicine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, ritonavir, and St. John’s wort).

Ergotamine derivates (drugs used to treat bleedings of gynaecological origin)

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate with alcohol

Alcohol may potentiate blood pressure lowering effect of the preparation.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding

Pregnancy

As no appropriate amount of clinical experience is available concerning pregnant women, it can be administered only after careful individual consideration of risk/benefit ratio by a doctor, therefore don’t forget to inform your doctor if you may be pregnant or you plan to have a baby.

In case of its administration in pregnancy, careful monitoring of foetus’ and newborn’s condition may be necessary.

Breast-feeding

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is not recommended during breast-feeding.

Driving and using machines

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate may impair driving or using machines by causing dizziness, headache, fatigue or nausea – especially when you start treatment or if your treatment is changed, and when you drink alcohol – therefore your doctor decides individually at what kind of dosage you can drive or use machines.

  1. How to take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.

The recommended dose is one tablet of the strength prescribed for you. Usually there is no need of dose adjustment in mild to moderate liver or kidney disease. In serious liver or kidney disease doses may be modified. Elderly

There is no need of dose adjustment in elderly patients, however, caution is advised when the dose is increased.

Method of administration

Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate should be taken in the morning, with or without food, with a little fluid without chewing it.

The score line is only there to help you break the tablet if you have difficulties swallowing it whole.

If you feel that the therapeutic effect of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate is too strong or too weak, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

If you take more Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate than you should

If you take more Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate than you should, consult a doctor immediately.

If you forget to take Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Try to make up missed dose as soon as possible. If it is already time to take next dose, do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten dose, because you cannot compensate missed amount but you expose yourself to the risk of overdose.

If you stop taking Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Do not stop taking drug abruptly, or change recommended dose before consulting your doctor, as in such cases heart failure may temporarily worsen. Treatment must not been discontinued abruptly especially in patients with coronary disease. If cessation of treatment is necessary, dose must be reduced gradually.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

  1. Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.

Common: may affect up to 1 in 10 people

Headache, dizziness, somnolence (especially at the beginning of the treatment), palpitation, flush, abdominal pain, ankle swelling, oedema, fatigue, feeling of coldness and numbness in the extremities, gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation.

Uncommon: may affect up to 1 in 100 people

Insomnia, mood changes (including anxiety), depression, temporary loss of consciousness (syncope), hypaesthesia, paraesthesia, abnormal sense of taste (dysgeusia), tremor, visual disturbances (including diplopia), tinnitus, hypotension, dyspnoe, rhinitis, altered bowel habits (including diarrhoea and constipation), dyspepsia, dry mouth, alopecia, small bleedings in the skin and mucosa (purpura), skin discolouration, increased sweating, itching, rash, exanthema, arthralgia, myalgia, muscle cramps, back pain, frequent micturition, micturition disorder, nycturia, impotence, breast enlargement in men, chest pain, asthenia, pain, malaise, weight increase, weight decrease, sleep disorders, heart conduction disorders, deterioration of pre-existing heart failure, slow heart rate (less than 50 beat per minute), low blood pressure, bronchospasm in patients with bronchial asthma or a history of obstructive pulmonary disease, muscle weakness and cramps, exhaustion*.

*These symptoms especially occur at the beginning of the therapy. They are generally mild and often disappear within 1-2 weeks.

Rare: may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people

Confusion, elevated level of triglyceride, nightmares, sense illusion, which is an abnormal sensation without detectable stimulus, similar to real sensation and seems real (hallucination), decreased tear secretion (it must be taken into consideration if you wear contact lenses), hearing impairments, allergic rhinitis, hepatitis, hypersensitivity reactions such as itching, flush, rash, elevated liver enzymes.

Very rare: may affect up to 1 in  10,000 people

Decrease of number or white blood cells and platelets, allergic reactions, elevated level of blood sugar, hypertonia, peripheral neuropathy, heart attack, cardiac arrhythmia, patchy inflammation of small blood vessels (vasculitis), cough, gastritis, gingival hyperplasia, pancreatitis, jaundice, acute swelling of skin or mucosa involving most frequently eyelids, lips, joints, genitals, glottis, pharynx and tongue (angio-oedema), serious inflammation of skin or mucosa with red vesicles (erythema multiforme), urticaria, widespread erythema and scaling of the skin (exfoliative dermatitis), serious blistering lesions of the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anal regions, with fever, sore throat and fatigue (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), sensitivity to the sunlight, conjunctivitis, drugs with similar mechanism of action than bisoprolol (active ingredient of the preparation) may evoke or worsen psoriasis (chronic skin disease with itchy scaly red patches) or may cause psoriasis-like skin disorder, disorders combining involuntary movements, muscle rigidity and contractions, tremor (extrapyramidal syndrome).

Reporting of side effects

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

  1. How to store Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate

Do not store above 30 C. Store in the original container in order to protect from light.

Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the carton (year/month). The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.

Do not use this medicine if you notice the visible signs (discoloration) of deterioration.

  1. Contents of the pack and other information

What Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate contains

Each film coated tablet contains:
Bisoprolol Fumarate USP                      5mg
Amlodipine Besylate USP
Equivalent to Amlodipine base              5mg
Excipients                                               q.s.
Colour: Titanium Dioxide USP

What Bisoprolol Fumarate and Amlodipine Besylate looks like and contents of the pack

Tablets are packed in OPA/Al/PVC//Al blister and carton box.

Pack Size: 7, 14, 28, 30, 50,90, 100 and 500 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

7. Manufactured In India By:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.
Mumbai, India
Unit No. 214.Old Bake House,
Maharashtra chambers of  Commerce Lane,
Fort, Mumbai – 400001
at:Gujarat, INDIA.
Customer Service and Product Inquiries:
1-800-TRY-FIRST (1-800-222-434 & 1-800-222-825)
Monday through Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. EST
E-mail: tajgroup@tajpharma.com

 

 

 

 

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Taj Generics (Taj Pharma) provides a wide range of products to the Indian market, including an extensive range of generics and specialty products; Our products cover a vast array of therapeutic categories, and we offer an extensive range of dosage forms and delivery systems including oral solids, controlled-release, steriles, injectables, topicals, liquids, transdermals, semi-solids and high-potency products. Our Generics portfolio offers over 1500 products in the major therapeutic areas of gastro-intestinal, cardiovascular, pain management, oncology, anti-infectives, paediatrics and dermatology.