Aripiprazole Tablets 10 mg Taj Pharma

  1. Name of the medicinal product

Aripiprazole 10mg tablets Taj Pharma
Aripiprazole 15mg tablets Taj Pharma

  1. Qualitative and quantitative composition

a) Each film coated tablet contains:
Aripiprazole                      10mg
Excipients                           q.s.
Colour: Yellow Oxide of Iron

b) Each film coated tablet contains:
Aripiprazole                      15mg
Excipients                         q.s.
Colour: Yellow Oxide of Iron

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

  1. Pharmaceutical form

Tablet

  1. Clinical particulars

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Aripiprazole is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults and in adolescents aged 15 years and older.

Aripiprazole is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder and for the prevention of a new manic episode in adults who experienced predominantly manic episodes and whose manic episodes responded to aripiprazole treatment (see section 5.1).

Aripiprazole is indicated for the treatment up to 12 weeks of moderate to severe manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder in adolescents aged 13 years and older (see section 5.1).

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Adults

Schizophrenia: the recommended starting dose for aripiprazole is 10 or 15 mg/day with a maintenance dose of 15 mg/day administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals.

Aripiprazole is effective in a dose range of 10 to 30 mg/day. Enhanced efficacy at doses higher than a daily dose of 15 mg has not been demonstrated although individual patients may benefit from a higher dose. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 30 mg.

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder: the recommended starting dose for aripiprazole is 15 mg administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals as monotherapy or combination therapy (see section 5.1). Some patients may benefit from a higher dose. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 30 mg.

Recurrence prevention of manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder: for preventing recurrence of manic episodes in patients who have been receiving aripiprazole as monotherapy or combination therapy, continue therapy at the same dose. Adjustments of daily dosage, including dose reduction should be considered on the basis of clinical status.

Paediatric population

Schizophrenia in adolescents aged 15 years and older: the recommended dose for aripiprazole is 10 mg/day administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals. Treatment should be initiated at 2 mg (using aripiprazole oral solution 1 mg/ml) for 2 days, titrated to 5 mg for 2 additional days to reach the recommended daily dose of 10 mg. When appropriate, subsequent dose increases should be administered in 5 mg increments without exceeding the maximum daily dose of 30 mg (see section 5.1).

Aripiprazole is effective in a dose range of 10 to 30 mg/day. Enhanced efficacy at doses higher than a daily dose of 10 mg has not been demonstrated although individual patients may benefit from a higher dose.

Aripiprazole is not recommended for use in patients with schizophrenia below 15 years of age due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder in adolescents aged 13 years and older: the recommended dose for aripiprazole is 10 mg/day administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals. Treatment should be initiated at 2 mg (using aripiprazole oral solution 1 mg/ml) for 2 days, titrated to 5 mg for 2 additional days to reach the recommended daily dose of 10 mg. (Alternative products with the same ingredient should be used for required doses not achievable with this product.)

The treatment duration should be the minimum necessary for symptom control and must not exceed 12 weeks. Enhanced efficacy at doses higher than a daily dose of 10 mg has not been demonstrated, and a daily dose of 30 mg is associated with a substantially higher incidence of significant undesirable effects including EPS related events, somnolence, fatigue and weight gain (see section 4.8). Doses higher than 10 mg/day should therefore only be used in exceptional cases and with close clinical monitoring (see sections 4.4, 4.8 and 5.1).

Younger patients are at increased risk of experiencing adverse events associated with aripiprazole.

Therefore, aripiprazole is not recommended for use in patients below 13 years of age (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).

Irritability associated with autistic disorder: the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in children and adolescents aged below 18 years have not yet been established. Currently available data are described in section 5.1 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Tics associated with Tourette’s disorder: the safety and efficacy of Aripiprazole in children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age have not yet been established. Currently available data are described in section 5.1 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Hepatic impairment

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, the data available are insufficient to establish recommendations. In these patients dosing should be managed cautiously. However, the maximum daily dose of 30 mg should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).

Renal impairment

No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment.

Elderly

The effectiveness of aripiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in patients aged 65 years and older has not been established. Owing to the greater sensitivity of this population, a lower starting dose should be considered when clinical factors warrant (see section 4.4).

Gender

No dosage adjustment is required for female patients as compared to male patients (see section 5.2).

Smoking Status

According to the metabolic pathway of aripiprazole no dosage adjustment is required for smokers (see section 4.5).

Dose adjustments due to interactions

When concomitant administration of potent CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 inhibitors with aripiprazole occurs, the aripiprazole dose should be reduced. When the CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 inhibitor is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be increased (see section 4.5).

When concomitant administration of potent CYP3A4 inducers with aripiprazole occurs, the aripiprazole dose should be increased. When the CYP3A4 inducer is withdrawn from the combination therapy, the aripiprazole dose should then be reduced to the recommended dose (see section 4.5).

Method of administration

Aripiprazole tablets are for oral use.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

During antipsychotic treatment, improvement in the patient’s clinical condition may take several days to some weeks. Patients should be closely monitored throughout this period.

Suicidality

The occurrence of suicidal behaviour is inherent in psychotic illnesses and mood disorders and in some cases has been reported early after initiation or switch of antipsychotic therapy, including treatment with aripiprazole (see section 4.8). Close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany antipsychotic therapy. Results of an epidemiological study suggested that there was no increased risk of suicidality with aripiprazole compared to other antipsychotics among adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. There are insufficient paediatric data to evaluate this risk in younger patients (below 18 years of age), but there is evidence that the risk of suicide persists beyond the first 4 weeks of treatment for atypical antipsychotics, including aripiprazole.

Cardiovascular disorders

Aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medicinal products) or hypertension, including accelerated or malignant.

Cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been reported with antipsychotic drugs. Since patients treated with antipsychotics often present with acquired risk factors for VTE, all possible risk factors for VTE should be identified before and during treatment with aripiprazole and preventive measures undertaken.

QT prolongation

In clinical trials of aripiprazole, the incidence of QT prolongation was comparable to placebo. As with other antipsychotics, aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients with a family history of QT prolongation (see section 4.8).

Tardive dyskinesia

In clinical trials of one year or less duration, there were uncommon reports of treatment emergent dyskinesia during treatment with aripiprazole. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on aripiprazole, dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. These symptoms can temporally deteriorate or can even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

Other extrapyramidal symptoms

In paediatric clinical trials of aripiprazole akathisia and parkinsonism were observed. If signs and symptoms of other EPS appear in a patient taking aripiprazole, dose reduction and close clinical monitoring should be considered.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

NMS is a potentially fatal symptom complex associated with antipsychotic medicinal products. In clinical trials, rare cases of NMS were reported during treatment with aripiprazole. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. However, elevated creatine phosphokinase and rhabdomyolysis, not necessarily in association with NMS, have also been reported. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, all antipsychotic medicinal products, including aripiprazole, must be discontinued.

Seizure

In clinical trials, uncommon cases of seizure were reported during treatment with aripiprazole.

Therefore, aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients who have a history of seizure disorder or have conditions associated with seizures.

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis

Increased mortality:

In three placebo-controlled trials (n= 938; mean age: 82.4 years; range: 56-99 years) of aripiprazole in elderly patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease, patients treated with aripiprazole were at increased risk of death compared to placebo. The rate of death in aripiprazole-treated patients was 3.5% compared to 1.7% in the placebo group. Although the causes of deaths were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g. heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g. pneumonia) in nature (see section 4.8).

Cerebrovascular adverse reactions

In the same trials, cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g. stroke, transient ischaemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients (mean age: 84 years; range: 78-88 years). Overall, 1.3% of aripiprazole-treated patients reported cerebrovascular adverse reactions compared with 0.6% of placebo-treated patients in these trials. This difference was not statistically significant. However, in one of these trials, a fixed-dose trial, there was a significant dose response relationship for cerebrovascular adverse reactions in patients treated with aripiprazole (see section 4.8).

Aripiprazole is not indicated for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.

Hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus

Hyperglycaemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole. Risk factors that may predispose patients to severe complications include obesity and family history of diabetes. In clinical trials with aripiprazole, there were no significant differences in the incidence rates of hyperglycaemia-related adverse reactions (including diabetes) or in abnormal glycaemia laboratory values compared to placebo. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycaemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with aripiprazole and with other atypical antipsychotic agents are not available to allow direct comparisons. Patients treated with any antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole, should be observed for signs and symptoms of hyperglycaemia (such as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weakness) and patients with diabetes mellitus or with risk factors for diabetes mellitus should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control (see section 4.8).

Hypersensitivity

As with other medicinal products, hypersensitivity reactions, characterised by allergic symptoms, may occur with aripiprazole (see section 4.8).

Weight gain

Weight gain is commonly seen in schizophrenic and bipolar mania patients due to comorbidities, use of antipsychotics known to cause weight gain, poorly managed life-style, and might lead to severe complications. Weight gain has been reported post-marketing among patients prescribed aripiprazole. When seen, it is usually in those with significant risk factors such as history of diabetes, thyroid disorder or pituitary adenoma. In clinical trials aripiprazole has not been shown to induce clinically relevant weight gain in adults (see section 5.1). In clinical trials of adolescent patients with bipolar mania, aripiprazole has been shown to be associated with weight gain after 4 weeks of treatment. Weight gain should be monitored in adolescent patients with bipolar mania. If weight gain is clinically significant, dose reduction should be considered (see section 4.8).

Dysphagia

Oesophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic treatment, including aripiprazole. Aripiprazole and other antipsychotic active substances should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia.

Pathological gambling

Post-marketing reports of pathological gambling have been reported among patients prescribed aripiprazole, regardless of whether these patients had a prior history of gambling. Patients with a prior history of pathological gambling may be at increased risk and should be monitored carefully (see section 4.8).

Patients with ADHD comorbidity

Despite the high comorbidity frequency of Bipolar I Disorder and ADHD, very limited safety data are available on concomitant use of aripiprazole and stimulants; therefore, extreme caution should be taken when these drugs are co-administered.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism, aripiprazole has the potential to enhance the effect of certain antihypertensive agents.

Given the primary CNS effects of aripiprazole, caution should be used when aripiprazole is taken in combination with alcohol or other CNS medicinal products with overlapping adverse reactions such as sedation (see section 4.8).

If aripiprazole is administered concomitantly with medicinal products known to cause QT prolongation or electrolyte imbalance, caution should be used.

Potential for other medicinal products to affect Aripiprazole

A gastric acid blocker, the H2 antagonist famotidine, reduces aripiprazole rate of absorption but this effect is deemed not clinically relevant.

Aripiprazole is metabolised by multiple pathways involving the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes but not CYP1A enzymes. Thus, no dosage adjustment is required for smokers.

Quinidine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors:

In a clinical trial in healthy subjects, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 (quinidine) increased aripiprazole AUC by 107%, while Cmax was unchanged. The AUC and Cmax of dehydro aripiprazole, the active metabolite, decreased by 32% and 47%. Aripiprazole dose should be reduced to approximately one-half of its prescribed dose when concomitant administration of aripiprazole with quinidine occurs. Other potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as fluoxetine and paroxetine, may be expected to have similar effects and similar dose reductions should therefore be applied.

Ketoconazole and other CYP3A4 inhibitors:

In a clinical trial in healthy subjects, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 (ketoconazole) increased aripiprazole AUC and Cmax by 63% and 37%, respectively. The AUC and Cmax of dehydro-aripiprazole increased by 77% and 43%, respectively. In CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, concomitant use of potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 may result in higher plasma concentrations of aripiprazole compared to that in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. When considering concomitant administration of ketoconazole or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors with aripiprazole, potential benefits should outweigh the potential risks to the patient. When concomitant administration of ketoconozole with aripiprazole occurs, aripiprazole dose should be reduced to approximately one-half of its prescribed dose. Other potent inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as itraconazole and HIV protease inhibitors may be expected to have similar effects and similar dose reductions should therefore be applied.

Upon discontinuation of the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 inhibitor, the dosage of aripiprazole should be increased to the level prior to the initiation of the concomitant therapy.

When weak inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., diltiazem or escitalopram) or CYP2D6 are used concomitantly with aripiprazole, modest increases in aripiprazole concentrations might be expected.

Carbamazepine and other CYP3A4 inducers:

Following concomitant administration of carbamazepine, a potent inducer of CYP3A4, the geometric means of Cmax and AUC for aripiprazole were 68% and 73% lower, respectively, compared to when aripiprazole (30 mg) was administered alone. Similarly, for dehydro-aripiprazole the geometric means of Cmax and AUC after carbamazepine co-administration were 69% and 71% lower, respectively, than those following treatment with aripiprazole alone.

Aripiprazole dose should be doubled when concomitant administration of aripiprazole occurs with carbamazepine. Other potent inducers of CYP3A4 (such as rifampicin, rifabutin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, efavirenz, nevirapine and St. John’s Wort) may be expected to have similar effects and similar dose increases should therefore be applied. Upon discontinuation of potent CYP3A4 inducers, the dosage of aripiprazole should be reduced to the recommended dose.

Valproate and lithium:

When either valproate or lithium were administered concomitantly with aripiprazole, there was no clinically significant change in aripiprazole concentrations.

Serotonin syndrome:

Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported in patients taking aripiprazole, and possible signs and symptoms for this condition can occur especially in cases of concomitant use with other serotonergic drugs, such as SSRI/SNRI, or with drugs that are known to increase aripiprazole concentrations (see section 4.8).

Potential for Aripiprazole to affect other medicinal products

In clinical studies, 10-30 mg/day doses of aripiprazole had no significant effect on the metabolism of substrates of CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan/3-methoxymorphinan ratio), CYP 2C9 (warfarin), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and CYP3A4 (dextromethorphan). Additionally, aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole did not show potential for altering CYP1A2-mediated metabolism in vitro. Thus, aripiprazole is unlikely to cause clinically important medicinal product interactions mediated by these enzymes.

When aripiprazole was administered concomitantly with either valproate, lithium or lamotrigine, there was no clinically important change in valproate, lithium or lamotrigine concentrations.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate and well-controlled trials of aripiprazole in pregnant women. Congenital anomalies have been reported; however, causal relationship with aripiprazole could not be established.

Animal studies could not exclude potential developmental toxicity (see section 5.3). Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with aripiprazole. Due to insufficient safety information in humans and concerns raised by animal reproductive studies, this medicinal product should not be used in pregnancy unless the expected benefit clearly justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Neonates exposed to antipsychotics (including aripiprazole) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk of adverse reactions including extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms that may vary in severity and duration following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, or feeding disorder. Consequently, newborns should be monitored carefully.

Breast-feeding

Aripiprazole is excreted in human breast milk. Patients should be advised not to breast feed if they are taking aripiprazole.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

As with other antipsychotics, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machines, including motor vehicles, until they are reasonably certain that aripiprazole does not affect them adversely. Some paediatric patients with Bipolar I Disorder have an increased incidence of somnolence and fatigue (see section 4.8).

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials are akathisia and nausea each occurring in more than 3% of patients treated with oral aripiprazole.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

All ADRs are listed by system organ class and frequency; very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency convention, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

The frequency of adverse reactions reported during post-marketing use cannot be determined as they are derived from spontaneous reports. Consequently, the frequency of these adverse events is qualified as “not known”.

Common (≥1/100 to <1/10) Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to < 1/100) Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders Leukopenia

Neutropenia

Thrombocytopenia

Immune system disorders Allergic reaction (e.g. anaphylactic reaction, angioedema including swollen tongue, tongue oedema, face oedema, pruritus, or urticaria)
Endocrine disorders Hyperprolactinaemia Diabetic hyperosmolar coma

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Hyperglycaemia

Metabolism and nutrition disorders Diabetes mellitus Hyperglycaemia Hyponatremia

Anorexia

Weight decreased

Weight gain

Psychiatric disorders Insomnia

Anxiety

Restlessness

Depression,

Hypersexuality

Suicide attempt, suicidal ideation and completed suicide (see section 4.4)

Pathological gambling

Aggression

Agitation

Nervousness

Nervous system disorders Akathisia

Extrapyramidal disorder

Tremor

Headache

Sedation

Somnolence

Dizziness

Tardive dyskinesia

Dystonia

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

Grand mal convulsion

Serotonin syndrome

Speech disorder

Eye disorders Vision blurred Diplopia
Cardiac disorders Tachycardia Sudden unexplained death

Torsades de pointes

QT prolongation

Ventricular arrhythmias

Cardiac arrest

Bradycardia

Vascular disorders Orthostatic hypotension Venous thromboembolism (including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis)

Hypertension

Syncope

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Hiccups Aspiration pneumonia

Laryngospasm

Oropharyngeal spasm

Gastrointestinal disorders Constipation

Dyspepsia

Nausea

Salivary hypersecretion

Vomiting

Pancreatitis

Dysphagia

Diarrhoea

Abdominal discomfort

Stomach discomfort

Hepatobiliary disorders Hepatic failure

Hepatitis

Jaundice

Increased Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

Increased Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

Increased Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

Increased alkaline phosphatase

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash

Photosensitivity reaction

Alopecia

Hyperhidrosis

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Rhabdomyolysis

Myalgia

Stiffness

Renal and urinary disorders Urinary incontinence

Urinary retention

Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal (see section 4.6)
Reproductive system and breast disorders Priapism
General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue Temperature regulation disorder (e.g. hypothermia, pyrexia)

Chest pain

Peripheral oedema

Investigations Blood glucose increased

Glycosylated haemoglobin increased

Blood glucose fluctuation

Increased creatine phosphokinase

Description of selected adverse reactions

Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)

Schizophrenia: in a long term 52-week controlled trial, aripiprazole-treated patients had an overall-lower incidence (25.8%) of EPS including parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia and dyskinesia compared with those treated with haloperidol (57.3%). In a long term 26-week placebo-controlled trial, the incidence of EPS was 19% for aripiprazole-treated patients and 13.1% for placebo-treated patients. In another long-term 26-week controlled trial, the incidence of EPS was 14.8% for aripiprazole-treated patients and 15.1% for olanzapine-treated patients.

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder – in a 12-week controlled trial, the incidence of EPS was 23.5% for aripiprazole-treated patients and 53.3% for haloperidol-treated patients. In another 12-week trial, the incidence of EPS was 26.6% for patients treated with aripiprazole and 17.6% for those treated with lithium. In the long term 26-week maintenance phase of a placebo-controlled trial, the incidence of EPS was 18.2% for aripiprazole-treated patients and 15.7% for placebo-treated patients.

Akathisia

In placebo-controlled trials, the incidence of akathisia in bipolar patients was 12.1% with aripiprazole and 3.2% with placebo. In schizophrenia patients the incidence of akathisia was 6.2% with aripiprazole and 3.0% with placebo.

Dystonia

Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.

Prolactin

In clinical trials for the approved indication(s) and post-marketing, both increase and decrease in serum prolactin as compared to baseline was observed with aripiprazole (section 5.1).

Laboratory parameters

Comparisons between aripiprazole and placebo in the proportions of patients experiencing potentially clinically significant changes in routine laboratory and lipid parameters (see section 5.1) revealed no medically important differences. Elevations of CPK (Creatine Phosphokinase), generally transient and asymptomatic, were observed in 3.5% of aripiprazole treated patients as compared to 2.0% of patients who received placebo.

Paediatric population

Schizophrenia in adolescents aged 15 years and older

In a short-term placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 302 adolescents (13-17 years) with schizophrenia, the frequency and type of undesirable effects were similar to those in adults except for the following reactions that were reported more frequently in adolescents receiving aripiprazole than in adults receiving aripiprazole (and more frequently than placebo): somnolence/sedation and extrapyramidal disorder were reported very commonly (≥ 1/10), and dry mouth, increased appetite, and orthostatic hypotension were reported commonly (≥ 1/100, < 1/10).

The safety profile in a 26-week open-label extension trial was similar to that observed in the short-term, placebo-controlled trial.

The safety profile of a long-term, double-blind placebo controlled trial was also similar except for the following reactions that were reported more frequently than paediatric patients taking placebo: weight decreased, blood insulin increased, arrhythmia, and leukopenia were reported commonly (≥ 1/100, < 1/10).

In the pooled adolescent schizophrenia population (13-17 years) with exposure up to 2 years, incidence of low serum prolactin levels in females (<3 ng/ml) and males (<2 ng/ml) was 29.5% and 48.3%, respectively. In the adolescent (13-17 years) schizophrenia population with aripiprazole exposure of 5 to 30 mg up to 72 months, incidence of low serum prolactin levels in females (<3 ng/ml) and males (<2 ng/ml) was 25.6 % and 45.0 %, respectively.

In two long term trials with adolescent (13-17 years) schizophrenia and bipolar patients treated with aripiprazole, incidence of low serum prolactin levels in females (< 3 ng/ml) and males (< 2 ng/ml) was 37.0 % and 59.4 %, respectively.

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder in adolescents aged 13 years and older

The frequency and type of undesirable effects in adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder were similar to those in adults except for the following reactions: very commonly (≥ 1/10) somnolence (23.0%), extrapyramidal disorder (18.4%), akathisia (16.0%), and fatigue (11.8%); and commonly (≥ 1/100,< 1/10) abdominal pain upper, heart rate increased, weight increased, increased appetite, muscle twitching, and dyskinesia.

The following undesirable effects had a possible dose response relationship; extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were 10 mg, 9.1%, 30 mg, 28.8%, placebo, 1.7%,); and akathisia (incidences were 10 mg, 12.1%, 30 mg, 20.3%, placebo, 1.7%).

Mean changes in body weight in adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder at 12 and 30 weeks for aripiprazole were 2.4 kg and 5.8 kg, and for placebo 0.2 kg and 2.3 kg, respectively.

In the paediatric population somnolence and fatigue were observed more frequently in patients with bipolar disorder compared to patients with schizophrenia.

In the paediatric bipolar population (10-17 years) with exposure up to 30 weeks, incidence of low serum prolactin levels in females (<3 ng/ml) and males (<2 ng/ml) was 28.0% and 53.3%, respectively.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.

4.9 Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

In clinical trials and post-marketing experience, accidental or intentional acute overdose of aripiprazole alone was identified in adult patients with reported estimated doses up to 1,260 mg with no fatalities. The potentially medically important signs and symptoms observed included lethargy, increased blood pressure, somnolence, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. In addition, reports of accidental overdose with aripiprazole alone (up to 195 mg) in children have been received with no fatalities. The potentially medically serious signs and symptoms reported included somnolence, transient loss of consciousness and extrapyramidal symptoms.

Management of overdose

Management of overdose should concentrate on supportive therapy, maintaining an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation, and management of symptoms. The possibility of multiple medicinal product involvement should be considered. Therefore cardiovascular monitoring should be started immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. Following any confirmed or suspected overdose with aripiprazole, close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Activated charcoal (50 g), administered one hour after aripiprazole, decreased aripiprazole Cmax by about 41% and AUC by about 51%, suggesting that charcoal may be effective in the treatment of overdose.

Haemodialysis

Although there is no information on the effect of haemodialysis in treating an overdose with aripiprazole, haemodialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose management since aripiprazole is highly bound to plasma proteins.

  1. Pharmacological properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: other antipsychotics.

Mechanism of action

It has been proposed that aripiprazole’s efficacy in schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder is mediated through a combination of partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT1a receptors and antagonism of serotonin 5HT2a receptors. Aripiprazole exhibited antagonist properties in animal models of dopaminergic hyperactivity and agonist properties in animal models of dopaminergic hypoactivity. Aripiprazole exhibited high binding affinity in vitro for dopamine D2 and D3, serotonin 5HT1a and 5HT2a receptors and moderate affinity for dopamine D4, serotonin 5HT2c and 5HT7, alpha-1 adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors. Aripiprazole also exhibited moderate binding affinity for the serotonin reuptake site and no appreciable affinity for muscarinic receptors. Interaction with receptors other than dopamine and serotonin subtypes may explain some of the other clinical effects of aripiprazole.

Aripiprazole doses ranging from 0.5 to 30 mg administered once a day to healthy subjects for 2 weeks produced a dose-dependent reduction in the binding of 11C-raclopride, a D2/D3 receptor ligand, to the caudate and putamen detected by positron emission tomography.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Schizophrenia

In three short-term (4 to 6 weeks) placebo-controlled trials involving 1,228 schizophrenic adult patients, presenting with positive or negative symptoms, aripiprazole was associated with statistically significantly greater improvements in psychotic symptoms compared to placebo.

Aripiprazole is effective in maintaining the clinical improvement during continuation therapy in adult patients who have shown an initial treatment response. In a haloperidol-controlled trial, the proportion of responder patients maintaining response to medicinal product at 52-weeks was similar in both groups (aripiprazole 77% and haloperidol 73%). The overall completion rate was significantly higher for patients on aripiprazole (43%) than for haloperidol (30%). Actual scores in rating scales used as secondary endpoints, including PANSS and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale showed a significant improvement over haloperidol.

In a 26-week, placebo-controlled trial in adult stabilised patients with chronic schizophrenia, aripiprazole had significantly greater reduction in relapse rate, 34% in aripiprazole group and 57% in placebo.

Weight gain

In clinical trials aripiprazole has not been shown to induce clinically relevant weight gain. In a 26- week, olanzapine-controlled, double-blind, multi-national study of schizophrenia which included 314 adult patients and where the primary end-point was weight gain, significantly less patients had at least 7% weight gain over baseline (i.e. a gain of at least 5.6 kg for a mean baseline weight of ~80.5 kg) on aripiprazole (n= 18, or 13% of evaluable patients), compared to olanzapine (n= 45, or 33% of evaluable patients).

Lipid parameters

In a pooled analysis on lipid parameters from placebo controlled clinical trials in adults, aripiprazole has not been shown to induce clinically relevant alterations in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL.

-Total cholesterol: incidence of changes in levels from normal (<5.18 mmol/l) to high (≥ 6.22 mmol/l) was 2.5% for aripiprazole and 2.8% for placebo and mean change from baseline was -0.15 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.182, -0.115) for aripiprazole and -0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.148, -0.066) for placebo.

-Fasting triglycerides: incidence of changes in levels from normal (<1.69 mmol/l) to high (≥ 2.26 mmol/l) was 7.4% for aripiprazole and 7.0% for placebo and mean change from baseline was -0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.182, -0.046) for aripiprazole and -0.07 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.148, 0.007) for placebo.

-HDL: incidence of changes in levels from normal (≥ 1.04 mmol/l) to low (<1.04 mmol/l) was 11.4% for aripiprazole and 12.5% for placebo and mean change from baseline was -0.03 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.046, -0.017) for aripiprazole and -0.04 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.056, -0.022) for placebo.

-Fasting LDL: incidence of changes in levels from normal (<2.59 mmol/l) to high (≥ 4.14 mmol/l) was 0.6% for aripiprazole and 0.7% for placebo and mean change from baseline was -0.09 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.139, -0.047) for aripiprazole and -0.06 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.116, -0.012) for placebo.

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder

In two 3-week, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled monotherapy trials involving patients with a manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder, aripiprazole demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo in reduction of manic symptoms over 3 weeks. These trials included patients with or without psychotic features and with or without a rapid-cycling course.

In one 3-week, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled monotherapy trial involving patients with a manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder, aripiprazole failed to demonstrate superior efficacy to placebo.

In two 12-week, placebo- and active-controlled monotherapy trials in patients with a manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder, with or without psychotic features, aripiprazole demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo at week 3 and a maintenance of effect comparable to lithium or haloperidol at week 12. Aripiprazole also demonstrated a comparable proportion of patients in symptomatic remission from mania as lithium or haloperidol at week 12.

In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with a manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder, with or without psychotic features, who were partially non-responsive to lithium or valproate monotherapy for 2 weeks at therapeutic serum levels, the addition of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy resulted in superior efficacy in reduction of manic symptoms than lithium or valproate monotherapy.

In a 26-week, placebo-controlled trial, followed by a 74-week extension, in manic patients who achieved remission on aripiprazole during a stabilization phase prior to randomization, aripiprazole demonstrated superiority over placebo in preventing bipolar recurrence, primarily in preventing recurrence into mania but failed to demonstrate superiority over placebo in preventing recurrence into depression.

In a 52-week, placebo-controlled trial, in patients with a current manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder who achieved sustained remission (Y-MRS and MADRS total scores ≤ 12) on aripiprazole (10 mg/day to 30 mg/day) adjunctive to lithium or valproate for 12 consecutive weeks, adjunctive aripiprazole demonstrated superiority over placebo with a 46% decreased risk (hazard ratio of 0.54) in preventing bipolar recurrence and a 65% decreased risk (hazard ratio of 0.35) in preventing recurrence into mania over adjunctive placebo but failed to demonstrate superiority over placebo in preventing recurrence into depression. Adjunctive aripiprazole demonstrated superiority over placebo on the secondary outcome measure, CGI-BP Severity of Illness score (mania).

In this trial, patients were assigned by investigators with either open-label lithium or valproate monotherapy to determine partial non-response. Patients were stabilised for at least 12 consecutive weeks with the combination of aripiprazole and the same mood stabilizer.

Stabilized patients were then randomised to continue the same mood stabilizer with double- blind aripiprazole or placebo. Four mood stabilizer subgroups were assessed in the randomised phase: aripiprazole + lithium; aripiprazole + valproate; placebo + lithium; placebo + valproate.

The Kaplan-Meier rates for recurrence to any mood episode for the adjunctive treatment arm were 16% in aripiprazole + lithium and 18% in aripiprazole + valproate compared to 45% in placebo + lithium and 19% in placebo + valproate.

Prolactin

Prolactin levels were evaluated in all trials of all doses of aripiprazole (n = 28,242). The incidence of hyperprolactinaemia or increased serum prolactin in patients treated with aripiprazole (0.3 %) was similar to that of placebo (0.2 %). For patients receiving aripiprazole, the median time to onset was 42 days and median duration was 34 days.

The incidence of hypoprolactinaemia or decreased serum prolactin in patients treated with aripiprazole was 0.4 %, compared with 0.02 % for patients treated with placebo. For patients receiving aripiprazole, the median time to onset was 30 days and median duration was 194 days.

Paediatric population

Schizophrenia in adolescents

In a 6-week placebo-controlled trial involving 302 schizophrenic adolescent patients (13-17 years), presenting with positive or negative symptoms, aripiprazole was associated with statistically significantly greater improvements in psychotic symptoms compared to placebo.

In a sub-analysis of the adolescent patients between the ages of 15 to 17 years, representing 74% of the total enrolled population, maintenance of effect was observed over the 26-week open-label extension trial.

In a 60- to 89-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adolescent subjects (n = 146; ages 13-17 years) with schizophrenia, there was a statistically significant difference in the rate of relapse of psychotic symptoms between the aripiprazole (19.39 %) and placebo (37.50 %) groups. The point estimate of the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.461 (95% confidence interval, 0.242-0.879) in the full population. In subgroup analyses the point estimate of the HR was 0.495 for subjects 13 to 14 years of age compared to 0.454 for subjects 15 to 17 years of age. However, the estimation of the HR for the younger (13-14 years) group was not precise, reflecting the smaller number of subjects in that group (aripiprazole, n = 29; placebo, n = 12), and the confidence interval for this estimation (ranging from 0.151 to 1.628) did not allow conclusions to be drawn on the presence of a treatment effect. In contrast the 95 % confidence interval for the HR in the older subgroup (aripiprazole, n = 69; placebo, n = 36) was 0.242 to 0.879 and hence a treatment effect could be concluded in the older patients.

Manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder in children and adolescents

Aripiprazole was studied in a 30-week placebo-controlled trial involving 296 children and adolescents (10-17 years), who met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder with manic or mixed episodes with or without psychotic features and had a Y-MRS score ≥20 at baseline. Among the patients included in the primary efficacy analysis, 139 patients had a current co-morbid diagnosis of ADHD.

Aripiprazole was superior to placebo in change from baseline at week 4 and at week 12 on the Y-MRS total score. In a post-hoc analysis, the improvement over placebo was more pronounced in the patients with associated co-morbidity of ADHD compared to the group without ADHD, where there was no difference from placebo. Recurrence prevention was not established.

Table 1: Mean improvement from baseline YMRS score by psychiatric comorbidity

Psychiatric comorbidities Week 4 Week 12 ADHD Week 4 Week 12
Aripiprazole 10 mg (n=48) 14.9 15.1 Aripiprazole 10 mg (n=44) 15.2 15.6
Aripiprazole 30 mg (n=51) 16.7 16.9 Aripiprazole 30 mg (n=48) 15.9 16.7
Placebo (n=52)a 7.0 8.2 Placebo (n=47)b 6.3 7.0
No psychiatric comorbidities Week 4 Week 12 No ADHD Week 4 Week 12
Aripiprazole 10 mg (n=27) 12.8 15.9 Aripiprazole 10 mg (n=37) 12.7 15.7
Aripiprazole 30 mg (n=25) 15.3 14.7 Aripiprazole 30 mg (n=30) 14.6 13.4
Placebo (n=18) 9.4 9.7 Placebo (n=25) 9.9 10.0

n=51 at Week 4

b n=46 at Week 4

The most common treatment-emergent adverse events among patients receiving 30 mg were extrapyramidal disorder (28.3%), somnolence (27.3%), headache (23.2%), and nausea (14.1%). Mean weight gain in the 30 weeks treatment-interval was 2.9 kg as compared to 0.98 kg in patients treated with placebo.

Irritability associated with autistic disorder in paediatric patients (see section 4.2)

Aripiprazole was studied in patients aged 6 to 17 years in two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials [one flexible-dose (2-15 mg/day) and one fixed-dose (5, 10, or 15 mg/day)] and in one 52-week open-label trial. Dosing in these trials was initiated at 2 mg/day, increased to 5 mg/day after one week, and increased by 5 mg/day in weekly increments to the target dose. Over 75% of patients were less than 13 years of age. Aripiprazole demonstrated statistically superior efficacy compared to placebo on the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist Irritability subscale. However, the clinical relevance of this finding has not been established. The safety profile included weight gain and changes in prolactin levels. The duration of the long-term safety study was limited to 52 weeks. In the pooled trials, the incidence of low serum prolactin levels in females (<3 ng/ml) and males (<2 ng/ml) in aripiprazole-treated patients was 27/46 (58.7%) and 258/298 (86.6%), respectively. In the placebo-controlled trials, the mean weight gain was 0.4 kg for placebo and 1.6 kg for aripiprazole.

Aripiprazole was also studied in a placebo-controlled, long-term maintenance trial. After a 13-26 week stabilisation on aripiprazole (2-15 mg/day) patients with a stable response were either maintained on aripiprazole or substituted to placebo for further 16 weeks. Kaplan-Meier relapse rates at week 16 were 35% for aripiprazole and 52% for placebo; the hazard ratio for relapse within 16 weeks (aripiprazole/placebo) was 0.57 (non-statistically significant difference). The mean weight gain over the stabilisation phase (up to 26 weeks) on aripiprazole was 3.2 kg, and a further mean increase of 2.2 kg for aripiprazole as compared to 0.6 kg for placebo was observed in the second phase (16 weeks) of the trial. Extrapyramidal symptoms were mainly reported during the stabilisation phase in 17% of patients, with tremor accounting for 6.5%.

Tics associated with Tourette’s disorder in paediatric patients (see section 4.2)

The efficacy of aripiprazole was studied in paediatric subjects with Tourette’s disorder (aripiprazole: n = 99, placebo: n = 44) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, 8 week study using a fixed dose weight-based treatment group design over the dose range of 5 mg/day to 20 mg/day and a starting dose of 2 mg. Patients were 7 – 17 years of age and presented an average score of 30 on Total Tic Score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (TTS-YGTSS) at baseline. Aripiprazole showed an improvement on TTS-YGTSS change from baseline to Week 8 of 13.35,for the low dose group (5 mg or 10 mg) and 16.94 for the high dose group (10 mg or 20 mg) as compared with an improvement of 7.09 in the placebo group.

The efficacy of aripiprazole in paediatric subjects with Tourette’s syndrome (aripiprazole: n = 32, placebo: n = 29) was also evaluated over a flexible dose range of 2 mg/day to 20 mg/day and a starting dose of 2 mg, in a 10 week, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in South-Korea. Patients were 6 – 18 years and presented an average score of 29 on TTS-YGTSS at baseline. Aripiprazole group showed an improvement of 14.97 on TTS-YGTSS change from baseline to Week 10 as compared with an improvement of 9.62 in the placebo group.

In both of these short term trials, the clinical relevance of the efficacy findings has not been established, considering the magnitude of treatment effect compared to the large placebo effect and the unclear effects regarding psycho-social functioning. No long term data are available with regard to the efficacy and the safety of aripiprazole in this fluctuating disorder.

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Aripiprazole in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of schizophrenia and in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Aripiprazole is well absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 3-5 hours after dosing. Aripiprazole undergoes minimal pre-systemic metabolism. The absolute oral bioavailability of the tablet formulation is 87%. There is no effect of a high fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole.

Distribution

Aripiprazole is widely distributed throughout the body with an apparent volume of distribution of 4.9 l/kg, indicating extensive extravascular distribution. At therapeutic concentrations, aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole are greater than 99% bound to serum proteins, binding primarily to albumin.

Biotransformation

Aripiprazole is extensively metabolised by the liver primarily by three biotransformation pathways: dehydrogenation, hydroxylation, and N-dealkylation. Based on in vitro studies, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes are responsible for dehydrogenation and hydroxylation of aripiprazole, and N-dealkylation is catalysed by CYP3A4. Aripiprazole is the predominant medicinal product moiety in systemic circulation. At steady state, dehydro-aripiprazole, the active metabolite, represents about 40% of aripiprazole AUC in plasma.

Elimination

The mean elimination half-lives for aripiprazole are approximately 75 hours in extensive metabolisers of CYP2D6 and approximately 146 hours in poor metabolisers of CYP2D6.

The total body clearance of aripiprazole is 0.7 ml/min/kg, which is primarily hepatic.

Following a single oral dose of [14C]-labelled aripiprazole, approximately 27% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and approximately 60% in the faeces. Less than 1% of unchanged aripiprazole was excreted in the urine and approximately 18% was recovered unchanged in the faeces.

Pharmacokinetics in special patient groups

Paediatric population

The pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in paediatric patients 10 to 17 years of age were similar to those in adults after correcting for the differences in body weights.

Elderly

There are no differences in the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole between healthy elderly and younger adult subjects, nor is there any detectable effect of age in a population pharmacokinetic analysis in schizophrenic patients.

Gender

There are no differences in the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole between healthy male and female subjects nor is there any detectable effect of gender in a population pharmacokinetic analysis in schizophrenic patients.

Smoking

Population pharmacokinetic evaluation has revealed no evidence of clinically significant effects from smoking upon the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole.

Race

Population pharmacokinetic evaluation showed no evidence of race-related differences on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole.

Renal impairment

The pharmacokinetic characteristics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole were found to be similar in patients with severe renal disease compared to young healthy subjects.

Hepatic impairment

A single-dose study in subjects with varying degrees of liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Classes A, B, and C) did not reveal a significant effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole, but the study included only 3 patients with Class C liver cirrhosis, which is insufficient to draw conclusions on their metabolic capacity.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical safety data revealed no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeat-dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, and toxicity to reproduction and development.

Toxicologically significant effects were observed only at doses or exposures that were sufficiently in excess of the maximum human dose or exposure, indicating that these effects were limited or of no relevance to clinical use. These included: dose-dependent adrenocortical toxicity (lipofuscin pigment accumulation and/or parenchymal cell loss) in rats after 104 weeks at 20 to 60 mg/kg/day (3 to 10 times the mean steady-state AUC at the maximum recommended human dose) and increased adrenocortical carcinomas and combined adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas in female rats at 60 mg/kg/day (10 times the mean steady-state AUC at the maximum recommended human dose). The highest nontumorigenic exposure in female rats was 7 times the human exposure at the recommended dose.

An additional finding was cholelithiasis as a consequence of precipitation of sulphate conjugates of hydroxy metabolites of aripiprazole in the bile of monkeys after repeated oral dosing at 25 to 125 mg/kg/day (1 to 3 times the mean steady-state AUC at the maximum recommended clinical dose or 16 to 81 times the maximum recommended human dose based on mg/m2). However, the concentrations of the sulphate conjugates of hydroxy aripiprazole in human bile at the highest dose proposed, 30 mg per day, were no more than 6% of the bile concentrations found in the monkeys in the 39-week study and are well below (6%) their limits of in vitro solubility.

In repeat-dose studies in juvenile rats and dogs, the toxicity profile of aripiprazole was comparable to that observed in adult animals, and there was no evidence of neurotoxicity or adverse effects on development.

Based on results of a full range of standard genotoxicity tests, aripiprazole was considered nongenotoxic. Aripiprazole did not impair fertility in reproductive toxicity studies. Developmental toxicity, including dose-dependent delayed foetal ossification and possible teratogenic effects, were observed in rats at doses resulting in subtherapeutic exposures (based on AUC) and in rabbits at doses resulting in exposures 3 and 11 times the mean steady-state AUC at the maximum recommended clinical dose. Maternal toxicity occurred at doses similar to those eliciting developmental toxicity.

  1. Pharmaceutical particulars

6.1 List of excipients

Cellulose microcrystalline, Tartaric acid, Croscarmellose sodium, Allura red AC aluminium lake

Magnesium stearate.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

OPA-Aluminium-PVC/Aluminium blister pack.

Pack sizes: 14, 28, 49, 56, 98 tablets

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Mumbai, India)
Unit No. 214, Old Bake House,
Maharashtra Chambers of commerce Lane,Fort,
Mumbai-400001 at: Ahmedabad- Gujarat, INDIA.

 

Aripiprazole 10 mg tablets (Taj Pharma)

Package leaflet: Information for the user

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.

  • Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
  • If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
  • This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
  • If you get any side effects talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.

What is in this leaflet:

  1. What Aripiprazole is and what it is used for
    2. What you need to know before you take Aripiprazole
    3. How to take Aripiprazole
    4. Possible side effects
    5. How to store Aripiprazole
    6. Contents of the pack and other information
  2. What Aripiprazole is and what it is used for

Aripiprazole contains the active substance aripiprazole and belongs to a group of medicines called antipsychotics. It is used to treat adults and adolescents aged 15 years and older who suffer from a disease characterised by symptoms such as hearing, seeing or sensing things which are not there, suspiciousness, mistaken beliefs, incoherent speech and behaviour and emotional flatness. People with this condition may also feel depressed, guilty, anxious or tense.

Aripiprazole is used to treat adults and adolescents aged 13 years and older who suffer from a condition with symptoms such as feeling “high”, having excessive amounts of energy, needing much less sleep than usual, talking very quickly with racing ideas and sometimes severe irritability. In adults it also prevents this condition from returning in patients who have responded to the treatment with Aripiprazole.

  1. What you need to know before you take Aripiprazole

Do not take Aripiprazole

  • if you are allergic to aripiprazole or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).

Warnings and precautions

Talk to your doctor before taking Aripiprazole if you are suffering or have ever suffered from any of the following conditions or illnesses:

  • High blood sugar (characterised by symptoms such as excessive thirst, passing of large amounts of urine, increase in appetite, and feeling weak) or family history of diabetes.
  • Seizure.
  • Involuntary, irregular muscle movements, especially in the face.
  • Cardiovascular diseases, family history of cardiovascular disease, stroke or “mini” stroke, abnormal blood pressure.
  • Blood clots or family history of blood clots, as antipsychotics have been associated with formation of blood clots.
  • Past experience of excessive gambling.

If you notice you are gaining weight, develop unusual movements, experience somnolence that interferes with normal daily activities, any difficulty in swallowing or allergic symptoms, please tell your doctor.

If you are an elderly patient suffering from dementia (loss of memory and other mental abilities), you or your carer/relative should tell your doctor if you have ever had a stroke or “mini” stroke.

Tell your doctor immediately if you are having any thoughts or feelings about hurting yourself.

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours have been reported during aripiprazole treatment.

Tell your doctor immediately if you suffer from muscle stiffness or inflexibility with high fever, sweating, altered mental status, or very rapid or irregular heart beat.

Children and adolescents

Aripiprazole is not for use in children and adolescents under 15 years. It is not known if it is safe and effective in these patients.

Other medicines and Aripiprazole

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

Blood pressure-lowering medicines: Aripiprazole may increase the effect of medicines used to lower the blood pressure. Be sure to tell your doctor if you take a medicine to keep your blood pressure under control.

Taking Aripiprazole with some medicines may need to change your dose of Aripiprazole. It is especially important to mention the following to your doctor:

  • Medicines to correct heart rhythm.
  • Antidepressants or herbal remedy used to treat depression and anxiety.
  • Antifungal agents.
  • Certain medicines to treat HIV infection.
  • Anticonvulsants used to treat epilepsy.

Medicines that increase the level of serotonin: triptans, tramadol, tryptophan, SSRIs (such as paroxetine and fluoxetine), tricyclics (such as clomipramine, amitriptyline), pethidine, St John’s Wort and venlafaxine. These medicines increase the risk of side effects; if you get any unusual symptom taking any of these medicines together with Aripiprazole, you should see your doctor.

Aripiprazole with food, drink and alcohol

Aripiprazole can be taken regardless of meals.

Alcohol should be avoided when taking Aripiprazole.

Pregnancy, breast-feeding and fertility

If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor for advice before taking this medicine.

The following symptoms may occur in newborn babies, of mothers that have used Aripiprazole in the last trimester (last three months of their pregnancy): shaking, muscle stiffness and/or weakness, sleepiness, agitation, breathing problems, and difficulty in feeding. If your baby develops any of these symptoms you may need to contact your doctor.

Be sure to tell your doctor immediately if you are breast-feeding. If you are taking Aripiprazole, you should not breast-feed.

Driving and using machines

Do not drive or use any tools or machines, until you know how Aripiprazole affects you.

Aripiprazole contains allura red AC aluminium lake (E129)

Aripiprazole 10 mg and 30 mg tablets contain the azo colouring agent allura red AC aluminium lake (E129), which may cause allergic reactions.

  1. How to take Aripiprazole

Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.

Try to take the Aripiprazole tablets at the same time each day. It does not matter whether you take it with or without food. Always take the tablet with water and swallow it whole.

The recommended dose for adults is 15 mg once a day. However your doctor may prescribe a lower or higher dose to a maximum of 30 mg once a day.

Use in children and adolescents

Aripiprazole may be started at a low dose with the oral solution (liquid) form. The dose may be gradually increased to the recommended dose for adolescents of 10 mg once a day. However your doctor may prescribe a lower or higher dose to a maximum of 30 mg once a day. (Alternative products with the same ingredient should be used for required doses not achievable with this product)

If you have the impression that the effect of Aripiprazole is too strong or too weak, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

If you take more Aripiprazole than you should

If you realise you have taken more Aripiprazole tablets than your doctor has recommended (or if someone else has taken some of your Aripiprazole tablets), contact your doctor right away. If you cannot reach your doctor, go to the nearest hospital and take the pack with you.

If you forget to take Aripiprazole

If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember but do not take two doses in one day.

If you stop taking Aripiprazole

Even if you feel better, do not alter or discontinue the daily dose of Aripiprazole without first consulting your doctor.

Do not stop your treatment just because you feel better. It is important that you carry on taking your Aripiprazole tablets for as long as your doctor has told you to.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

  1. Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.

Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people):

  • diabetes mellitus,
  • difficulty sleeping,
  • feeling anxious,
  • feeling restless and unable to keep still, difficulty sitting still,
  • uncontrollable twitching, jerking or writhing movements, restless legs,
  • trembling,
  • headache,
  • tiredness,
  • sleepiness,
  • light-headedness,
  • shaking and blurred vision,
  • decreased number of or difficulty making bowel movements,
  • indigestion,
  • feeling sick,
  • more saliva in mouth than normal,
  • vomiting,
  • feeling tired.

Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people):

  • increased blood levels of the hormone prolactin,
  • too much sugar in the blood,
  • depression,
  • altered or increased sexual interest,
  • uncontrollable movements of mouth, tongue and limbs (tardive dyskinesia),
  • muscle disorder causing twisting movements (dystonia),
  • double vision,
  • fast heart beat,
  • a fall in blood pressure on standing up which causes dizziness, light-headedness or fainting,
  • hiccups.

The following side effects have been reported since the marketing of Aripiprazole but the frequency for them to occur is not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data):

  • low levels of white blood cells,
  • low levels of blood platelets,
  • allergic reaction (e.g. swelling in the mouth, tongue, face and throat, itching, hives),
  • onset or worsening of diabetes, ketoacidosis (ketones in the blood and urine) or coma,
  • high blood sugar,
  • not enough sodium in the blood,
  • loss of appetite (anorexia),
  • weight loss,
  • weight gain,
  • thoughts of suicide, suicide attempt and suicide,
  • excessive gambling,
  • feeling aggressive,
  • agitation,
  • nervousness,
  • combination of fever, muscle stiffness, faster breathing, sweating, reduced consciousness and sudden changes in blood pressure and heart rate, fainting (neuroleptic malignant syndrome),
  • seizure,
  • serotonin syndrome (a reaction which may cause feelings of great happiness, drowsiness, clumsiness, restlessness, feeling of being drunk, fever, sweating or rigid muscles),
  • speech disorder,
  • sudden unexplained death,
  • life-threatening irregular heart beat,
  • heart attack,
  • slower heart beat,
  • blood clots in the veins especially in the legs (symptoms include swelling, pain and redness in the leg), which may travel through blood vessels to the lungs causing chest pain and difficulty in breathing (if you notice any of these symptoms, seek medical advice immediately),
  • high blood pressure,
  • fainting,
  • accidental inhalation of food with risk of pneumonia (lung infection),
  • spasm of the muscles around the voice box,
  • inflammation of the pancreas,
  • difficulty swallowing,
  • diarrhoea,
  • abdominal discomfort,
  • stomach discomfort,
  • liver failure,
  • inflammation of the liver,
  • yellowing of the skin and white part of eyes,
  • reports of abnormal liver tests values,
  • skin rash,
  • sensitivity to light,
  • baldness,
  • excessive sweating,
  • abnormal muscle breakdown which can lead to kidney problems,
  • muscle pain,
  • stiffness,
  • involuntary loss of urine (incontinence),
  • difficulty in passing urine,
  • withdrawal symptoms in newborn babies in case of exposure during pregnancy,
  • prolonged and/or painful erection,
  • difficulty controlling core body temperature or overheating,
  • chest pain,
  • swelling of hands, ankles or feet,
  • in blood tests: fluctuating blood sugar, increased glycosylated haemoglobin.

In elderly patients with dementia, more fatal cases have been reported while taking aripiprazole. In addition, cases of stroke or “mini” stroke have been reported.

Additional side effects in children and adolescents

Adolescents aged 13 years and older experienced side effects that were similar in frequency and type to those in adults except that sleepiness, uncontrollable twitching or jerking movements, restlessness, and tiredness were very common (greater than 1 in 10 patients) and upper abdominal pain, dry mouth, increased heart rate, weight gain, increased appetite, muscle twitching, uncontrolled movements of the limbs, and feeling dizzy, especially when getting up from a lying or sitting position, were common (greater than 1 in 100 patients).

Reporting of side effects

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

  1. How to store Aripiprazole

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.

Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the blister and on the carton. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.

This medicine does not require any special storage conditions.

Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.

  1. Contents of the pack and other information

What Aripiprazole contains

The active substance is aripiprazole. Aripiprazole 10 mg tablet contains 10 mg of aripiprazole.

The other ingredients are cellulose microcrystalline, tartaric acid, croscarmellose sodium, Allura red ac aluminium and magnesium stearate.

Contents of the pack

Aripiprazole is available in blister packs containing 14, 28, 49, 56, 98 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

7. Manufactured By:
Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Mumbai, India)
Unit No. 214, Old Bake House,
Maharashtra Chambers of commerce Lane,Fort,
Mumbai-400001 at: Ahmedabad- Gujarat, INDIA.

 

Related Products

Taj Generics (Taj Pharma) provides a wide range of products to the Indian market, including an extensive range of generics and specialty products; Our products cover a vast array of therapeutic categories, and we offer an extensive range of dosage forms and delivery systems including oral solids, controlled-release, steriles, injectables, topicals, liquids, transdermals, semi-solids and high-potency products. Our Generics portfolio offers over 1500 products in the major therapeutic areas of gastro-intestinal, cardiovascular, pain management, oncology, anti-infectives, paediatrics and dermatology.