- Name of the medicinal product
Ampicillin for Injection USP 250mg Taj Pharma
Ampicillin for Injection USP 500mg Taj Pharma
Ampicillin for Injection USP 1g Taj Pharma
Ampicillin for Injection USP 2g Taj Pharma
Ampicillin for injection USP 10mg Taj Pharma
- Qualitative and quantitative composition
a) Ampicillin for Injection USP 250mg Taj Pharma
Each vial contains:
Ampicillin Sodium USP
Equivalent to Ampicillin 250mg
b) Ampicillin for Injection USP 500mg Taj Pharma
Each vial contains:
Ampicillin Sodium USP
Equivalent to Ampicillin 500mg
c) Ampicillin for Injection USP 1g Taj Pharma
Each vial contains:
Ampicillin Sodium USP
Equivalent to Ampicillin 1g
d) Ampicillin for Injection USP 2g Taj Pharma
Each vial contains:
Ampicillin Sodium USP
Equivalent to Ampicillin 2g
e) Ampicillin for injection USP 10g Taj Pharma
Each vial contains:
Ampicillin Sodium USP
Equivalent to Ampicillin 10g
3. Pharmaceutical form
White to off-white crystalline powder for Injection.
Patient Leaflet Information for healthcare professionals
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ampicillin Taj Pharma and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin Taj Pharma should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP the monosodium salt of [2S-[2a,5a,6b(S*)]]-6-[(aminophenylacetyl)amino]- 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylic acid, is a synthetic penicillin. It is an antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against both penicillin-susceptible Grampositive organisms and many common Gram-negative pathogens.
It has the following chemical structure:
The molecular formula is C16H18N3NaO4S, and the molecular weight is 371.39. Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP contains 2.86 milliequivalents of sodium per 1 gram of drug.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP is white to off-white crystalline powder. The solution after constitution is clear and colorless.
Each vial contains Ampicillin Taj Pharma sodium equivalent to 125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 gram or 2 grams Ampicillin Taj Pharma per vial. The sodium content is 8.23mg (0.36 mEq) per 125 mg, 16.46 mg (0.72 mEq) per 250 mg, 32.91 mg (1.43 mEq) per 500 mg, 65.83 mg (2.86 mEq) per 1 g or 131.66 mg (5.72 mEq) per 2 g of Ampicillin Taj Pharma.
- CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids. However, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and brain occurs only when the meninges are inflamed. Ampicillin Taj Pharma is excreted largely unchanged in the urine and its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. The active form appears in the bile in higher concentrations than those found in serum. Ampicillin Taj Pharma is the least serum-bound of all the penicillins, averaging about 20% compared to approximately 60 to 90% for other penicillins. Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP is well-tolerated by most patients and has been given in doses of 2 grams daily for many weeks without adverse reactions.
While in vitro studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of most strains of the following organisms, clinical efficacy for infections other than those included in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section has not been demonstrated.
The following bacteria have been shown in in vitro studies to be susceptible to Ampicillin Taj Pharma:
GRAM-POSITIVE ORGANISMS: Hemolytic and nonhemolytic streptococci, D. pneumoniae, nonpenicillinaseproducing staphylococci, Clostridia spp., B. anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, and most strains of enterococci.
GRAM-NEGATIVE ORGANISMS: H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Proteus mirabilis, and many strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma does not resist destruction by penicillinase.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma Susceptibility Test Discs, 10 mcg, should be used to estimate the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria to Ampicillin Taj Pharma.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the following conditions:
Respiratory tract Infections caused by S. pneumoniae (formerly D. pneumoniae). Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinase-producing), H. influenzae, and Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococci.
Bacterial Meningitis caused by E. coli, Group B Streptococci, and other Gram-negative bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, N. meningitidis). The addition of an aminoglycoside with Ampicillin Taj Pharma may increase its effectiveness against Gram-negative bacteria.
Septicemia and Endocarditis caused by susceptible Gram-positive organisms including Streptococcus sp., penicillin G-susceptible staphylococci, and enterococci. Gram-negative sepsis caused by E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella sp. respond to Ampicillin Taj Pharma. Endocarditis due to enterococcal strains usually respond to intravenous therapy. The addition of an aminoglycoside may enhance the effectiveness of Ampicillin Taj Pharma when treating streptoccoccal endocarditis.
Urinary Tract Infections caused by sensitve strains of E. coli and Proteus mirabilis.
Gastrointestinal Infections caused by Salmonella typhosa (typhoid fever), other Salmonella sp., and Shigella sp. (dysentery) usually respond to oral or intravenous therapy.
Bacteriology studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to Ampicillin Taj Pharma should be performed. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing.
It is advisable to reserve the parenteral form of this drug for moderately severe and severe infections and for patients who are unable to take the oral forms. A change to oral Ampicillin Taj Pharma may be made as soon as appropriate.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ampicillin Taj Pharma and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin Taj Pharma should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed.
A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.
serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. there have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. before initiating therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. if an allergic reaction occurs, Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic organisms or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. In such cases, discontinue the drug and substitute appropriate treatment.
A high percentage (43 to 100 percent) of patients with infectious mononucleosis who receive Ampicillin Taj Pharma develop a skin rash. Typically, the rash appears 7 to 10 days after the start of oral Ampicillin Taj Pharma therapy and remains for a few days to a week after the drug is discontinued. In most cases, the rash is maculopapular, pruritic, and generalized. Therefore, the administration of Ampicillin Taj Pharma is not recommended in patients with mononucleosis. It is not known whether these patients are truly allergic to Ampicillin Taj Pharma.
Prescribing Ampicillin Taj Pharma in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drugresistant bacteria.
Information for Patients
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Ampicillin Taj Pharma should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Ampicillin Taj Pharma is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Ampicillin Taj Pharma or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued.
Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as 2 or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system function, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, should be made during prolonged therapy.
Transient elevation of serum transaminase has been observed following administration of Ampicillin Taj Pharma. The significance of this finding is not known.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and Ampicillin Taj Pharma increases substantially the incidence of skin rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving Ampicillin Taj Pharma alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of Ampicillin Taj Pharma rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
With high urine concentrations of Ampicillin Taj Pharma, false-positive glucose reactions may occur if Clinitest, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution are used. Therefore, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix or Tes-Tape) be used.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in laboratory animals at doses several times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of adverse effects due to Ampicillin Taj Pharma. There are, however, no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Oral Ampicillin Taj Pharma-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs showed that intravenous administration of Ampicillin Taj Pharma slightly decreased the uterine tone and frequency of contractions, but moderately increased the height and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether use of these drugs in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma is excreted in trace amounts in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when Ampicillin Taj Pharmaclass antibiotics are administered to a nursing woman.
Guidelines for the administration of these drugs to children are presented in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
As with other penicillins, it may be expected that untoward reactions will be essentially limited to sensitivity phenomena. They are more likely to occur in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins and in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.
The following adverse reactions have been reported as associated with the use of Ampicillin Taj Pharma:
Glossitis, stomatitis, black “hairy” tongue, nausea, vomiting, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, and diarrhea. (These reactions are usually associated with oral dosage forms.)
Skin rashes and urticaria have been reported frequently. A few cases of exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme have been reported. Anaphylaxis is the most serious reaction experienced and has usually been associated with the parenteral dosage form.
Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, Ampicillin Taj Pharma should be discontinued, unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to Ampicillin Taj Pharma therapy. Serious anaphylactic reactions require the immediate use of epinephrine, oxygen, and intravenous steroids.
Liver A moderate rise in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) has been noted, particularly in infants, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Mild transitory SGOT elevations have been observed in individuals receiving larger (two to four times) than usual and oft-repeated intramuscular injections.
Evidence indicates that glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) is released at the site of intramuscular injection of Ampicillin Taj Pharma sodium and that the presence of increased amounts of this enzyme in the blood does not necessarily indicate liver involvement.
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems Anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with the penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.
In cases of overdose, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. In patients with renal function impairment, Ampicillin Taj Pharma-class antibiotics can be removed by hemodialysis but not peritoneal dialysis.
- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Infections of the respiratory tract and soft tissues.
Patients weighing 40 kg (88 lbs) or more: 250 to 500 mg every 6 hours.
Patients weighing less than 40 kg (88 lbs): 25 to 50 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses at 6- to 8- hour intervals.
Infections of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts (including those caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in females).
Patients weighing 40 kg (88 lbs) or more: 500 mg every 6 hours.
Patients weighing less than 40 kg (88 lbs): 50 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses at 6- to 8- hour intervals.
In the treatment of chronic urinary tract and intestinal infections, frequent bacteriological and clinical appraisal is necessary. Smaller doses than those recommended above should not be used. Higher doses should be used for stubborn or severe infections. In stubborn infections, therapy may be required for several weeks.
It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.
Urethritis in males due to N. gonorrhoeae.
Adults Two doses of 500 mg each at an interval of 8 to 12 hours. Treatment may be repeated if necessary or extended if required.
In the treatment of complications of gonorrheal urethritis, such as prostatitis and epididymitis, prolonged and intensive therapy is recommended. Cases of gonorrhea with a suspected primary lesion of syphilis should have darkfield examinations before receiving treatment. In all other cases where concomitant syphilis is suspected, monthly serological tests should be made for a minimum of four months.
The doses for the preceding infections may be given by either the intramuscular or intravenous route. A change to oral Ampicillin Taj Pharma may be made when appropriate.
Adults and children 150 to 200 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 3 to 4 hours. (Treatment may be initiated with intravenous drip therapy and continued with intramuscular injections.) The doses for other infections may be given by either the intravenous or intramuscular route.
Adults and children 150 to 200 mg/kg/day. Start with intravenous administration for at least three days and continue with the intramuscular route every 3 to 4 hours.
Treatment of all infections should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. A minimum of 10- days treatment is recommended for any infection caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci to help prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Use only freshly prepared solutions. Intramuscular and intravenous injections should be administered within one hour after preparation since the potency may decrease significantly after this period.
For Intramuscular Use Dissolve contents of a vial with the amount of Sterile Water for Injection, USP, or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP, listed in the table below:
|Label claim||Recommended Amount of Diluent||Withdrawable Amount||Concentration (in mg/ml)|
|125 mg||1.2 mL||1 mL||125mg|
|250 mg||1 mL||1 mL||250mg|
|500 mg||1.8 mL||2 mL||250mg|
|1 gram||3.5 mL||4 mL||250mg|
|2 gram||6.8 mL||8 mL||250mg|
While Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP, 1 g and 2 g, are primarily for intravenous use, they may be administered intramusculary when the 250 mg or 500 mg vials are unavailable. In such instances, dissolve in 3.5- or 6.8-mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP, or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP, respectively. The resulting solution will provide a concentration of 250 mg per mL.
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP, 125 mg, is intended primarily for pediatric use. It also serves as a convenient dosage form when small parenteral doses of the antibiotic are required.
For Direct Intravenous Use Add 5 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP, or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP to the 125, 250, and 500 mg vials and administer slowly over a 3- to 5- minute period. Ampicillin Taj Pharma for injection, USP, 1 g or 2 g, may also be given by direct Intravenous administration. Dissolve in 7.4- or 14.8-mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP, or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP, respectively, and administer slowly over at least 10 to 15 minutes. CAUTION: More rapid administration may result in convulsive seizures.
For Administration by Intravenous Drip Reconstitute as directed above (For Direct Intravenous Use) prior to diluting with Intravenous Solution. Stability studies on Ampicillin Taj Pharma sodium at several concentrations in various intravenous solutions indicate the drug will lose less than 10% activitiy at the temperatures noted for the time periods stated.
|Room Temperature (25° C)|
|Sterile Water for Injection||up to 30 mg/mL||8 hours|
|Isotonic Sodium Chloride||up to 30 mg/mL||8 hours|
|5% Dextrose in Water||10 to 20 mg/mL||1 hours|
|5% Dextrose in Water||up to 2 mg/mL||2 hours|
|5% Dextrose in 0.45% NaCl||up to 2 mg/mL||2 hours|
|Lactated Ringer’s Solution||up to 30 mg/mL||8 hours|
|Sterile Water for Injection||30 mg/mL||48 hours|
|Sterile Water for Injection||up to 20 mg/mL||72|
|Isotonic Sodium Chloride||30 mg/mL||24|
|Isotonic Sodium Chloride||up to 20 mg/mL||48|
|Lactated Ringer’s Solution||up to 30 mg/mL||24|
|5% Dextrose in Water||up to 20 mg/mL||1hour|
|5% Dextrose in Water||up to 10 mg/mL||1 hour|
- HOW SUPPLIED
Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection, USP is white to off-white crystalline powder supplied in vials containing Ampicillin Taj Pharma sodium equivalent to 125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 g or 2 g of Ampicillin Taj Pharma.
The following packages are available:
|Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection USP, 125 mg in 10 mL vial||Box of 10 vials|
|Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection USP, 250 mg in 10 mL vial||Box of 10 vials|
|Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection USP, 500 mg in 10 mL vial||Box of 10 vials|
|Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection USP, 1g in 15 mL vial||Box of 10 vials|
|Ampicillin Taj Pharma for Injection USP, 2g in 24 mL vial||Box of 10 vials|
Store the dry powder at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Manufactured in India by:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.
Unit No. 214.Old Bake House,
Maharashtra chambers of Commerce Lane,
Fort, Mumbai – 400001
Customer Service and Product Inquiries:
1-800-TRY-FIRST (1-800-222-434 & 1-800-222-825)
Monday through Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. EST